The porcelain of Meissen (in German Meißener Porzellan) is the first porcelain of Europe. It was produced successfully from the year 1708 by Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus. After the premature death of this one, Johann Friedrich Böttger continued its work, by what often he is considered to be mistakenly responsible for its invention. The production of porcelain of Meissen began in the year 1710 and then it already attracted diverse artists and craftsmen, there being established one of the most famous manufacturing factories of porcelain of Europe. The company keeps on working under the name Staatliche Porzellan-Manufaktur Meissen GmbH. Its most well-known logotype, two crossed swords, was introduced in the year 1720 with the intention of protecting its falsifications production.
It is possible to be said that it is one of the most ancient marks that exist.
Typical emblems of the ceramics of Meissen up to coming to the crossed swords of the current ceramics.
From remote times porcelain has been made in porcelain. Already in the XVIIth century, the oriental porcelain was very valued goods. Most was imported from porcelain and Japan by the Dutch Company of the East Indies. The oriental porcelain was a symbol of wealth, importance and a good taste. There is this the motive for which one began to think about the possibility of producing locally in Europe porcelain. The previous attempts of preparing porcelain had been a defeat, like the case of the “porcelain of Médici”.
At the beginning of the XVIIIth century Johann Friedrich Böttger assured to have the formula to fulfill the sleep of the alchemists of turning materials without value into gold. When the elector of Saxony Federico Augusto I heard the Fortress on its works, it put him under its care and asked him to do gold for him. For many years Johann Friedrich Böttger was not successful in its task. At the same time, Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus, a mathematician and scientist, was experimenting with the crystal manufacture trying to create porcelain.
Tschirnhaus supervised Böttger and about 1707 Böttger began to give – reluctantly – its help in the Tschirnhaus experiments. When Tschirnhaus died suddenly, it seems that the recipe went on to hands of Böttger, which in less than one week he announced to the elector that it could make porcelain. Böttger perfected the formula and, with the help of its Dutch assistants, it did experiments related to the manufacture and the painting of tiles, preparing the suitable frame to begin the porcelain manufacture. In 1709, Augusto Fortress established the first Meissen manufacture and located the Böttger laboratory in the Albrechtsburg castle in Meissen. The production began officially in 1710.
Beginning of the production
The first type of porcelain produced by Böttger was a refined, extremely hard material and of red color that was known in Germany as Böttgersteinzeug (“mud of Böttger”). He was emphasizing the big clearness and definition of the details, added by means of molds, with which the pieces were adorned. These could be polished and polished before the cooking process. The works were imitating baroque and ceramic figures of silver Chinese. Soon one began to prepare in Meissen white porcelain of hard pasta, a special type of porcelain that had begun to be made in porcelain in the IXth century and that was obtained cooking to very high temperatures a chipboard that it was containing caolinita and a rock feldespática so called “petunse”. This porcelain of hard pasta could be glazed and identical and it begun to be commercialized in 1713.
The goods resultant from the experiments of Böttger improved its quality quickly, but it never gone so far as to be characterized by the quality of its decoration. The first time in which it is possible to speak about success was when the ornaments were recorded in gold on the piece cooked before receiving a second baked to minor temperature. The decorations of polychromatic enameling were introduced by Johann Gregorius Höroldt in 1723, with one every time major palette of colors that marked the beginning of the so called “classic phase” of the porcelain of Meissen. Its paintings to the enamel keep on being nowadays the base of the painting on ceramics. Initially the paintings were imitations of oriental motives. The logotype of the porcelain, recorded in blue under the glazed earthenware, was introduced for the first time by Friedrich August Köttig. Soon, sceneries and detailed port scenes meticulously, animals, flowers, “gallant” scenes and chinoiseries they inspired the decorations of the porcelain of Meissen.
There were imitated the vases of Kakiemon and Japanese games of tea. The floral motives represented in these Japanese porcelains preserve still today the name of indianische Blume (n), flower (is) from the India, because, on having been imported by the companies of the East Indies of the different European countries, the people were thinking that the proper porcelains were indies. Also there were copied paintings of the French baroque artist Antoine Watteau. Also glazed colors porcelains were made of Meissen without any decoration, which were sold wholesale to workshops deprived to be enameled in these. The patronage of Augusto Fortress attracted Meissen to some of the best artists of Europe.
Beginning of the reputation
Soon peaople began using the Albrechtsburg laboratory to keep the secrets of the manufacture of the “white gold”. Like precaution, very few were the workpeople expert in the arcane ones of the making of the porcelain. Even if a worker knew some secrets of the office, these were relative only to a part of the process. As this, for some years, Meissen had the monopoly of the production of porcelain of hard pasta in Europe. Concerning 1717 the competition was established in Vienna, since Samuel Stöltzel sold the secret recipe, which was including the employment of caolinita or “Chinese mud”. Already in the year 1760, approximately 30 porcelain manufacturers were placed in Europe. Nevertheless, most of them was producing porcelain of soft pasta due to the absence of local deposits of caolinita.
With the target to identify the products of original Meissen, they were marked in the beginning with a design identical with the surface. At once, these designs identificativos were recorded in blue below the glazed earthenware. The first marks like “AR” (Augustus Rex, the monogram of the king), K.P.M. (Königliche Porzellan-Manufaktur), M.P.M. (Meissener Porzellan-Manufaktur) and K.P.F. (“Königliche Porzellan-Fabrik) was replaced finally with the logotype of two crossed swords. Introduced in 1720, it begun being used of habitual form from 1731 by official decree. The different changes in the style of the swords allow nowadays to date the Meissen porcelains.
Augusto Fortress entrusted first the design of new vases to Johann Jakob Irminger. In the year 1720 Johann Gregorius Höroldt assumed the director’s charge and introduced brilliant colors that increased the reputation of the porcelain of Meissen. Sculptor Johann Jakob Kirchner was the first one in doing with this porcelain statues, especially miniatures and saints’ effigies of baroque style. Its assistant was Johann Joachim Kändler who would be later the most famous sculptor of Meissen. In 1733 Kirchner resigned, and Kändler happened to redeem the chief’s charge of main sculptors. Under its direction, Meissen produced a series of miniatures, which often were representing scenes of the court, which squeezed all the possibilities that were offering the new materials. Its collection of figures of animals of big scale there supposes one of the points summit of the history of the porcelain in Europe. Its work translated for itself in the production of splendid miniatures of style rococo that they influenced to the sector of the porcelain of the whole Old Continent. Supported by assistants as Johann Friedrich Eberlein and Peter Reinecke, Kändler kept on working up to its death in 1775.
In 1756, in full War of Seven Years, the Prussian troops occupied Meissen, giving the opportunity to Federico II of Prussia to move some of the craftsmen and to Königliche Porzellan Manufaktur create Berlin. With the change of artistic taste that there bore the Neoclassicist and the heyday of the porcelain of Sèvres in the decade of 1760, Meissen had to readjust its production. After the reorganization of 1763, C.W.E. Dietrich of the Academy of Dresden turned into artistic director and the Frenchman Michel-Victor Acier in sculptors’ chief. The practice of printing the number of mold on inventor books began in 1763. Under the guidance of count Camillo Marcolini (from 1774), the production of the manufacture was marked by styles “to the Sèvres” and small waves with the Neoclassicism, like for example pieces of biscuit white mate of marmoreal appearance.
In the XIXth century Ernst August Leuteritz modernized many of the miniatures rococós and commercialized them creating the “second Rococo”, rich in details of braided (facts with real bonds) and flowers. The English collectors went so far as to use the term of porcelain of Dresden to describe this style, especially to refer to those feminine statuettes that were suggesting flirtatious or innocent shyness. Under the guidance of Erich Hösel (from 1903), the old styles were checked and re-interpreted. Hösel restored models of the XVIIIth century. Some attractive works began to take place in the line of the New art, but the main prop of the production of Meissen the models recreations kept on being dieciochescos.
In the year 1933, the State of Saxony restricted the artistic freedom in the frame of the process of indoctrination that Nazi was reigning in the Germany. Some creators with a conception rupturista of the art were proscribed. For example, many works of the sculptor expressionist Ernst Barlach were corrected of “degenerate art”. After the Second World war and under the communist government of the RDA, the porcelain had difficulties of readjusting to the new situation, on having talked each other of a sector traditionally destined for wealthy minorities. Proletarizar an industry since that of the porcelain of Meissen could suppose the danger of which it was ending up by turning into a production factory in mass more. It was from the year 1969, in which Karl Petermann took charge of the factory, when Meissen could embrace its old traditions again, allowing also a freer artistic expression.
Soup tureen of the Schwanenservice
Already from the epoch of Böttger the porcelains production was contemplated; the first games date of 1720s. The first porcelains were simple and it was Kändler the one that introduced decorations to game. About 1740, Meissen created the famous porcelain Schwanenservice (“service of the swan”), of more than thousand pieces, for the protector of Kändler, Count Heinrich von Brühl (see also: Patio of Brühl). After the Second World war the pieces dispersed, but the molds have survived, and at present there can be acquired replies of the pieces of this porcelain. Kändler produced during 1745 a so called pattern “new clipping”, characterized by the wavy cut of the rims.
The model of the onion (Zwiebelmuster) goes producing nearly three centuries to him. It is a question of a design of Höroldt of 1739 and probably it is inspired in a Chinese bowl of the period Kangxi. Due to its popularity he has become copied by more than 60 companies. Many pieces that imitate the famous adornments of the Zwiebelmuster have been created by its competitors, using even the name of Meissen like mark. The boss was so popular and it was so widespread, that the Supreme Court of Germany declared the term Meissener Zwiebelmuster (Model of the Onion of Meissen) of public domain in 1926.
Other popular models that keep on taking place are that of the pink purple and that of the fig leaves. Another series of porcelains has engravings under the glazed earthenware motives of red and golden dragons flying about the rim of the plate, with a medallion in the center of the mold. Precisely a version of this model was used in the Bavarian refuge.
To the beginning of the manufacture the property of the production belonged to the king of Saxony. In the year 1830 the property happened to the state. After the Second World war, most of the equipment of the factory went to stop the Soviet Union like part of the booty of war. Nevertheless, in the year 1946 the workpeople and artists of the factories returned to the traditional methods by means of the employment of crucible and of this form one prevented the production from remaining definitely discontinuous. The company had a deep relation with the production of the Soviet Union, this phenomenon did that the artists’ community that the porcelains were decorating was remaining alive. After the establishment of the Democratic Republic of Germany the company happened to be a property of the German government and in the year 1950 an entity pertenecienete to the village. After this period the company of Meissen Porzellan was profitable again and this turned into a problem in a communist economy. After the reunification of Germany in 1990, the company was returned to the state of Saxony. Meanwhile its products became expensive, the extreme quality and the artistic value so high that it was beginning being a desire object on the part of the collectors.
Collections of the ceramics of Meissen
The extreme oddness of some games of the porcelain of Meissen and the enormous value that awards them the quality of the used material, they did that they were used exclusively by the classes of the nobility and the royalty. The Meissen porcelain was entrusted, between others, by the Russian, French and English royalty, as well as by other nobiliary houses of countries of Europe. Of this simple form, the Meissen porcelain was distributed by different collections. When they began emerging the well-off classes of the United States, they began acquiring also pieces of old collections (like the Vanderbilt, which began his own). Some of these collections can enjoy in different museums of the world.
Personalities in Meissen
Vase of flowers of Meissen with an oriental motive in the shape of dragon.
Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus, inventor of the European porcelain
Johann Friedrich Böttger, introduced the process of the manufacture of the porcelain
Heinrich Gottlieb Kühn, inventor of the process of colors
Friedrich August Köttig, inventor of Meissen Blue
Johann Joachim Kändler, famous artist
Johann Gregorius Höroldt, painter of porcelain, developer of colourings for the porcelain
Camillo Marcolini, politician and the director of the production
Artists of the XXth / XXIst century
Peter Strang, from the year 1968 like plastic artist, until governing 1993 of the artistic production.
Olaf Fieber, from 1987 as manufacturer of porcelain. From 2006 it has turned into a free craftsman.
Chair Lladró of Architecture for the Habitat
The Chairs of Company are a way of establishing a wide and qualified collaboration of companies, foundations and other entities with managerial link with the Polytechnical University of Valencia to develop targets of teaching, technology transfer and knowledge and of investigation.
The Chair Lladró of Architecture for the Habitat has its head office in the ETS of Architecture, and its director.
There is already in functioning the new web of the Chair Lladró of Architecture for the Habitat.
Today it is the functioning the new web of the Chair Lladró of Architecture for the Habitat in order to facilitate and to improve the service given by this agreement between Lladró and the Polytechnical University of Valencia.
This new Web tries to be a central point of communication of this entity, where it is possible to know the actuality of the services and activities that it offers.
The object of the Chair Lladró of Architecture for the Habitat is the promotion and diversification of the use of the china and its introduction in the architecture and in habitat, by means of the collaboration in different activities of I+D+i and of formation in the field of common interest.
International ideas contest. Workshops of investigation, design and development. Conferences, publications and exhibitions.
World leader marks in the design, production and distribution of figures of artistic china.
To its classic figures characterized by an unmistakable style, of lines stylized and decorated in soft tones, the recent innovation collections join, with more round forms, new colors and bold textures.
All the works Lladró are prepared of completely handmade form in The City of the China, in Tavernes Blanques (Valencia). Each of them is born of the mastery of artists and designers who dedicate its lives to expressing in china the most universal feelings, the deepest emotions. One of the most valued motives and diferenciadores of its pieces there are the flowers.
Every flower is realized to hand by specializing artists who connect the petals, one to one, with an impressive result. Its internationalization begins in the 70s thanks to the success in the USA, to which they continued that of the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and Japan. More recently, Lladró has been implanted on emergent markets like Russia, India and China.
Today Lladró exports its creations to more than 120 countries of five continents.
It is provided with an international network of authorized retailers, in addition to its boutiques own, placed in commercial capitals of the size of New York, London, Moscow, Tokyo, Madrid, Barcelona or Valencia.
Boutiques conditioned especially to be the ideal stage where to discover all the qualities of the works Lladró.
Juan Lladró Dolz has decided to leave the council of administration of the company Sodigeu, dedicated to the production and to the commercialization of decorative ceramics.
The mercantile one had an invoicing in 2012 next to 70 million euros closing the exercise with benefit.
For it, Juan Lladró has summoned an extraordinary general shareholders meeting for the next November 19, in which it will stop from its charge.
The exit of Juan Lladró of the family enterprise is the second one that it realizes. In 2002, the brothers Lladró (Juan, José and Vicente) transferred the direction of the signature to several members of the second generation although, five years later, they took the reins of the company again.
In 2007, Juan Lladró remained with the majority accionarial and the direction of the company most known about the family, dedicated to the ceramics with the mark Lladró, while its brothers José and Vicente remained with the corporation Tabnet, where they were gathering together from a participation in the company that manages the oceanográfico of the City of the Arts and the Sciences as well as of mercantile dedidacadas to the hotel, real estate sector, of solar energy or tourist.
In 2010, Tabnet was divided in several societies.
“Exactly two years ago, one day like today, my children said to me: ‘ Dad, we are going to give you bad news. We are sorry about it because it is your birthday’. Memory that the biggest had tears in the eyes. ‘The uncles are going to avoid the company to see who is done by the control’, they added. Seemingly I did not react. I remembered them seldom that my two brothers had come to an entente. My children there concluded: ‘ We do not have anything that to do because there are majority and agree’”.
This way Vicente Lladró reports the moment (March 5, 2007) in which its brothers Juan and José decided to distribute after more than 50 together years the managerial holding of the Lladró, formed, in addition to for the business of the china, for real estate, agricultural companies and of financial and industrial shares. It counts it in a book of memoirs personal and managerial, Like that that I lived through it and this way I count it, edited by him itself, in which the minor of three brothers Lladró reveals enough secrets, some and very bitter sweets different, of that it is still a family enterprise of reference.
For example, that managed to brake the unexpected drawing of all the assets of the holding and obtained a process for which every business was valued and there were awarded most of control of the ultimate parent by auction, not for drawing. It her remained the biggest, Juan Lladró. Vicente did not even bid. The author revises also its mediator’s situation between Juan and José during more than two decades, in that he felt “like a fuse between two poles” or “like an egg between two stones”, as they said to him in certain occasion. Since there were three and the major two were never coinciding, Vicente was alternating its supports to one and to other, what was giving him in certain way the last word. A power that he exercised to its sorrow and that cost him such griefs as that Juan will withdraw the word from him for three years, something “very hard and very painfully”, according to account.“ That one for whom I never voted was grateful to me for it, and the one for that I stopped voting has had it kept to me and has returned me the ball when it has seemed suitable to him”, he complains.
Vicente Lladró proves to be very critical with the emulation of leading role of its older brothers and counts several anecdotes that illustrate the interest that they had for appearing there where there were the important people and photographers’ presence. Also it accuses them of absence of managerial vision and of having taken the group Lladró to the crisis of last years. He reports the case of a director-general who was defrauding the company until Juan and José went away to study a master’s degree to Madrid and he, affirms, it discovered the cake. Between the causes of the bad management it includes the fact that they him did not pay attention in the proposals that he was presenting regularly. Since it usually happens in the memoirs books, the self-criticism shines for its absence.
There are curious revelations, like its sleep of an emblematic head office in Tavernes Blanques (Valencia), for which they bought 200.000 square meters of area in 1995 and entrusted the design to Santiago Calatrava. It was never realized because, according to Vicente Lladró, they began suffering for the Chinese copies and preferred to be prudent.
The edition of this book coincides with the publication of other of José Lladró, the second one of the brothers. Lights and shades of the family enterprise, edited by Planet, it appears in Valencia on December 16. Although with less detail that Vicente, José does not also bite the language at the time of speaking about the familiar tensions inside the group Lladró. Not to make it very long, I will comment on this second book in a next delivery.
In 2007, the shop (pardon, ‘concept store’) Parisian Colette filled its shop window of figures of Lladró.
Today, the madness for this space has gone down a little but, then, there was nothing equal in the world fashion.
And what was doing a signature as Lladró, labeled like classic, in the most modern shop of the world? It was, perhaps, one of the recent points of inflection of the Valencian company: Lladró was pleasing! It initiated then a fruitful collaboration with the designer Jaime Hayón, extended to other names of the first level as Tim Biskup or Devil Robots. Last June, they presented in the Boutique Lladró in Beverly Hills the new pieces designed by the Californian artist Gary Baseman.
There are the most recent examples of this new dynamics but not the only ones. In 60 years of history they have lived through a few accounts reinventions. Precisely this idea can there turns reflected in the exhibition that commemorates 60 anniversary of Lladró, a chronological itinerary for the work most emphasized from the signature.
It begins in the Museum Lladró de Tavernes Blanques, Valencia, where it will be until December. Later, it will pass to cities for Moscow, New York, Los Angeles and New Delhi. And the idea, skylight, is to demonstrate that the Lladró ‘absentee’, of baroque picture cards in the sideboard of the dining room, is not (alone) the reality of the house.
The sample ‘Lladró, 60 years to the avant-garde of the china’ is divide in seven periods that show the artistic evolution of the signature. Because “Lladró has never stopped exploring in the forms”, they aim. Its catalog has always included “from the classic figures of tones soft and finished brilliant to the pieces of sculptural cut, happening for the most functional and avant-garde slope”. From the beginnings of (1950) with forms of inspiration Rococo (homage to included Meissen) up to the “new ways” initiated in the year 2000.
In the 60, for example, Lladró introduces the monocooking (till then, the china was cooked three times). In the 80, the first step towards the renewal comes also from the hand of collections like ‘Sculptures’, works of modern lines in very short throws; or ‘In Goya’s style’, where there moves to the potter’s clay the fresh and intuitive character of the sketch in mud.
Also, as I complement to this exhibition and fruit of the initiative ‘Looks between museums’ impelled by Lladró, the Museum exhibits for the first time in Spain the work of Picasso, ‘Verre et pipe’ (Glass and pip, 1918). The painting, which has always remained in European private collections, reveals for the first time the public, coinciding with 40 anniversary of the death of the artist.
The Bank, Ribalta, Zurbarán, The Greek one, Rubens, Joan de Joanes, Pinazo, Sorolla…
This is a part of the painters’ payroll that they shape the collection deprived of the family Lladró that now can be contemplated in the museum that the proper company has opened in the City of the China, the complex located in the Valencian locality of Tavernes Blanques where they are designed and make the well-known decorative figures.
It has been a few years since the family Lladró decided to show already to more than 15.000 visitors who every year spend for the factory part of its collection, hoarded throughout the years in which three founding brothers, Juan, José and Vicente Lladró, have been buying works of art.
Nevertheless, now, the company has decided to give one more step creating the Museum Lladró, where on the one hand there are exhibited the most emblematic figures of china of the history of the company and for other the collection deprived of painting, composed by approximately 200 works of those who exhibit approximately 70.
The art gallery deprived of the Lladró has a high value. ‘Initially the brothers began for collecting only works of Valencian painters, with the time the dealers were offering other opportunities that they could not push back therefore they ended up by extending its target’, tells the president of the company, Rosa Lladró.
The reorganization and putting in value of the art gallery of the Lladró has been made use also by the company to establish in its head office a sample of 70 more emblematic pieces of china of the mark. ‘We wanted to have this exhibition because till now only we had it in New York’, pointed Rosa Lladró.
The sample begins for three works realized by each of three founders, the Portrait of an oldster, of Juan Lladró. Vase number 5, of José Lladró and regional Dance, of Vicente Lladró.
From here on, the sample gathers the creations of different authors who have worked for the signature, between that there stands out Fulgencio García, author of one of the most emblematic figures of Lladró, Sad harlequin, who defined the lines for which it would think up good part of the creation in the Valencian company and which acquaintance has done to him in the whole world.
After years of losses and familiar frictions, he thinks about how to recover its world status
The main signature of china of the world symbolizes distinction for some and ‘kitsch‘ for others
The secret of its survival, the promise that three Valencian brothers did to their mother.
Lladró has just opened a shop in the heart of Manhattan, where it went so far as to possess an entire building. Today, they allow, ride to another rhythm. The sales began going down in 2007 and shook the shop window of this singular Valencian signature of decorative chinas, present in 123 countries and of almost 60 years of history, three of them applying to its personnel a day reduction.
The empire of the Lladró divided from a promise of three brothers to a mother and was constructed by the same material with which God created the man: the mud. Juan (86 years), José (84) and Vicente (80), poor farmers, learned in the stage of vegetables of the garden of Almàssera (Valencia) the metaphysics of the sediments mixed with the water of the ditches of the river Turia. Then they completed day’s wages in Azulejera Valenciana and, like workers, they absorbed the skills of the refractory material and the artistic china of high quality in the factory of Víctor de Nalda, who outcropped its talent for the decoration.
Then they signed the agreement of indivisibility that was guaranteeing Rosa Dolz Pastor that its three children would never separate. They could be different, but singularities hipostáticas from the same extract. “My mother wanted that the three were employed at the same thing so that we were resting some to others”, tells the biggest, Juan Lladró, current owner of the signature. Something complicated when it is necessary to administer, they knew later. The portal of Bethlehem of this transit towards the multinational was a small Moorish stove that they constructed with waste material in the corral of the house of its parents. This heat cooked its first figures of china and warmed the penuries that they crossed, working and studying in the School of Arts and crafts of Valencia, up to being able to found their own business in 1953.
Juan and José were painters, and Vicente sculpted. They were sure where they wanted to go, but they did not have to disobey the order of their mother. The year that she died, 1957, they opened its first shop of plates and vases decorated in the Passage Rex de Valencia. Twelve months later they began gaining money and marrying. The logotype of the flower of the campanillo and the bond of the ancient alchemy, with which they symbolized the union of the nature and the science, initiated its spread, at the time that the family was growing and multiplying. “When either more people come, either it throws them for here and for there”, admits Juan. “We were already great, with different points of view and mentalities”
The stylized figures of Lladró penetrated in the sideboards and American lounges, luxurious collecting for many, kitsch emblem for others. In 1988 they opened a shop – museum of nine apartments between the Fifth Avenue and Head office Park, in New York, and in 1997, 1.200 square meters other one in Detour Drive, in Los Angeles. The Valencian ceramics were getting doctor’s degree without complexes like symbol of universal status, with 100.000 fixed clients, achieving top qualities to the competition on having cooked its products to 1.300 grades (the others do it to 750). They cleaned rivals out with 300 years of antiquity. And as they underline in the company, without need to make chinas, like its main contender, the German Rosenthal.
But on the splendor he always planned the threat of the brotherly break. Like symptom, in the center of the City of the China, which occupies approximately 100.000 square meters in Tavernes Blanques, there is a sculpture with three columns and three effigies that initiated this lineage. And an eloquent inscription: “Your union is our future. The workpeople”.
For years, three brothers turnaron in five-year orders in the presidency. “A company like ours, that nothing has been born of and has multiplied with the savings of the work, could not have worked of not being like that. The economic union, and not that each one had its sachet, has done very much so that we kept on working together, doing what better each one could do”, Juan repeats. In spite of everything, the descent, in the council of administration from 1984, amplified the criteria bogey. And it expanded the cracks. When José’s daughter used the mark Duke of Lladró for the wines of its wine vault, the family presented to him a demand that snatched the right to use it. Rosa Maria, who would die some years after cancer, left the company of its father and uncles without coming to an agreement in the evaluation that received for his part (623 millions). Consequently, Lladró named in 2004 a manager foreign to the family. It did not work.
In 2007, Juan remained the company because “it was running risk”. “If there was no change in the company, it was not going out afloat”, he recalls. It came to an agreement with other brothers. They have 15 % each one, and Juan, 70 %. To compensate, in other familiar business, of 86 societies who have gone so far as to have (between real estate, agricultural companies and financial and industrial shares), José and Vicente remained the majority. “It was interesting to me to extract it forward. Neither one of my brothers nor he was interested in; to other, yes. But I bet more”, reports Juan. Lladró had gone so far as to have 2.650 employees, more than 500 abroad. Now it has little more than 1.000. “We had to reduce earlier”, it admits. “In February, 2000 we were gaining a lot of money; in the middle of 2007 we were losing a lot of money. As much as we were winning earlier. This year is the first one that repuntamos, and to that it comes will be more 20 %”, it anticipates.
The company now presided and vicepresided by the Pink daughters and Angels, invoice 70 million euros, opposite to the almost 180 that it had reached. Now, with the crisis, it sails in a new reality. “Earlier we were selling many big small and some pieces, but now, lowering 20 % the sales, we obtain more money”, it reveals. The millionaire buyers have increased and Japan has cleaned the United States out like main market, with China and India pushing behind.
«From the miracle to the nonsense: Take from yourself you that it is me who puts himself», the confundador of the ceramic company, be sorry about the transit «of the miracle Lladró» towards «dying of success» due to familiar conflicts and the absence of a leader.
VALENCIA supposes that at my eighty five years it should have problems to remember and even to reason. Nevertheless I am more lucid than never». José Lladró Dolz (Almàssera, 1928) reports very personal histories on entanglements, jealousy and familiar conflicts in an empire of the porcelain that it started together with its brothers Juan and Vicente it already does more than half a century. Nevertheless, the company tries now to overcome the serious economic crisis and of identity which results are unpredictable. In Of The Miracle to the nonsense: Take from yourself you that put myself I, who shortly will go out to the market and to that THE MERCANTILE VALENCIAN ONE has had access, José Lladró proves to be deeply worried by the «managerial culture and the uncertain future of Spain and Comunitat Valenciana. It supports that «the egoism, the vanity and the longing for being able define a very short trip, since on them nothing lasting can be constructed». Something of this has happened in the well-known Valencian signature.
In the year 2000 Lladró was one the mercantile most important of Spain.: «Now, no!», there regrets the co-founder of the City of the porcelain after observing from the barrier the continuous internal battles, intrigues and relations certainly complex between its owners. The company «suffers a brutal crisis that it has been on the point of taking it ahead», it specifies. The business of the porcelain went on to hands of the family of its brother Juan in 2007, while José and Vicente distributed other patrimonies. Juan handles since then the rudder of the activity fundacional in the most difficult times. It has started a restructuring of big openwork that seems to have no end. Since then, the communication between the co-founders scarcely exists.
To come to the «miracle Lladró» it is true that it was «a way that we covered three together brothers and that for the long time we did all the possible so that the tensions that existed between us were not coming out out of our managerial circle. I at least this way did it. I supported constant attacks of one and the maneuvers of other. Until the formula exploited», there regrets the author of the latter history of the signature of Tavernes Blanques. Curiously this battle without barracks exploded when the group was in the top.: «This is what one usually calls to die of success», José Lladró regrets.
That prodigious epoch
Nevertheless, earlier everything was different. «Lladró was the best ambassador of Spain», infanta Pilar de Borbón declared owing to the opening of the impressive Museum Lladró in New York, in the Fifth Avenue, to stone shot of the Metropolitan or of the Modern Art museum, in 1988. It was the golden age of the signature of decorative ceramics, since to the museum of the street 57 it continued a shop in Detour Drive (California), to another side of the American continent, and other emblematic points in places like Las Vegas, Tokyo, Singapore, London or Madrid. «It had me to be at the head of that squad throughout thirty five years and during this time there were created in our region more than 2.000 jobs and 500, abroad», he stands out.
And what was Lladró? «Since it is we who are Lladró, what we think and how do we act». On having fulfilled its fifty anniversaries, José „with the flourishing empire in the United States, Europe and Asia„ makes sure that it was fulfilling four principles. The first one, the human factor; the second one, the quality and the prestige; the third one, the continuity of the company and the quarter, the economic results».
In 1995 José was isolated from the control of the company. Its brothers took the rudder of the industrial ship while they relegated José to the «agrarian second division». In spite of everything, Vicente managed to clean Juan out and imposed to the executive maxima in the different areas of the company and there happens entry to diverse members of the family of the second generation. In 2001 there took place the offense of the twin towers in New York, the bag collapsed and the set of the world economy resientió, like also Lladró, which initiated a clear inflection point on having lost market share and exports. In 2003 Vicente retired three brothers, who went out of the council of administration, although it kept on taking the reins of the society until 2007, when Juan took them again. The losses, by that time, were already large and the situation, untenable.
For the way emblematic buildings sold in the exterior as the museum of New York or the shop of Detour Drive, as well as other places that they had in Beverly Hills. There counts José Lladró who then was still maintaining a big growth potential inside the emergent countries, although its implantation and its prestige has suffered seriously and the traditional markets, like the United Kingdom or the United States, they have lost bellows. The staff also has come down almost to the half compared to that of the year 2000. A decade later, the company was at the edge of the suspension of payments and of being sold by an euro. «I know very closely what is that a company happens of having many million benefits one year to lose almost the same ones the following year», he remembers.
The succession was not solved
According to José Lladró, the second generation has grown in this climate of division and competition between brothers first and brothers and cousins, later. The experience as agents her were acquiring others, the executives who were in charge of investing in its name and opening new business.
Last October 18, 2011, José sent a hard letter to its brother Juan: “I believe that there has come the moment to break the silence and to speak skylight before it is too much late, before it does not make sense already to say anything and we have left the sad consolation of complaining». In this so demanding tone towards its older brother, José reminds to him that «you have left that loses a number superior to the value of your participation in the company. I do not know if with the law in the hand it can, but: do they have a moral right to do it?», it pierces Juan. «I believe that in this company pride remains very much. I propose to you to do blot and new account and that let’s study the way of beginning again the together three, with a participation of 33 % each one». And further on he emphasizes: “The success blinded us to each and everyone in major or less measurement and it would be necessary to return to this formula of humanized capitalism».
The said writing, like so many people different previous, it did not obtain answer. At the beginning of June, 2013, in one few annual meetings the one that as law had opportunity to help, José asked for Juan’s resignation, although he knew that it had the legal route closed to change the situation, which would need reforms of the commercial law. Something that is not to its scope. «One of the things that more hurt me is to think that it could be making my older brother [Juan] a happy just person what turns out so bitter to me, that what for me is a misfortune is its happiness, even at the cost of being become poor to all. That seems terrible and it is difficult to me to understand it enormously», points the author.
The excuse of the crisis is ridiculous
«The family is a fantastic germ for the business undertaking, but later he has to can go on to a background as the good parents do, so that the creature that it has generated has proper life. If the family does not separate on time „José Lladró stands out„, if its members cannot transform in a few objective and professional agents, the society, as it happens with so many children whom one loves egoístamente, it finishes asphyxiated».
The excuse of the crisis sounds especially ridiculous when a company uses her as Lladró, «that to the beginning of the new stage was highly internationalized, was exporting more than 90 % of its production and had a mark much posicionada, in the same conditions as German, these societies who now go well», it specifies.: «About what crisis are we speaking in a case like this one?». In its opinion, the concentric wave that it shook to the economic world after 11-S, in case of Lladró, might justify like very much a descent of the business volume of 25 %. «Not at all that might not recover in four or five later years if it was possible to recover in four or Five later years, if there had been a good management, bearing in mind its strategic position», it supports.
«Juan is doing awful management. That’s why I think that it fills the vacancy «legally, but not “according to the law”. It has a right to do it for law, but not from the point of seen morally». In the year 2012, after a decade of losses and changes in the headquarters, the society has obtained light benefits. The division of gift – porcelain (after a labor restructuring to turn to the whole production staff in fixed discontinuous), to the margin of otos business distributed between differently members of the familiar clan, it achieved a few sales of 69,3 million euros.
The necessary revolution
Paraphrasing J. F. Kennedy, also remembers that «the art of the success consists of being able to surround itself with the best. Supporting to improve around you she can be a big leader». With the distance that allows him its age and after its long stage at the head of the empire of the porcelain, José Lladró considers to be necessary to attack a revolution. He confesses that «there was a time in which I was thinking that a family enterprise was the most wonderful of the world, because it was a place where the brothers and the children not only loved, but with its love and its combined and united effort you were capable of constructing magnificent (…) things Now I know that I have been an ingenuous one. It is not a coincidence that the more deficient is a management, the more opaque one and less participativa turns».
«Humanized capitalism« where the personnel informs the management and in the decision making in the highest levels of the organization. «All this without need to modify the right of property of the silent partners», he adds. Also he thinks that «to divide the world in class does not make sense. A bad businessman is that that practises the classes struggle and believes that all the rest are redundant».
Grieved for «swindle perpetrated by the banks, savings banks and some big companies» across the preference shares, Lladró does not spend popr high place the loss of Valencian financial institutions and Valencian Television criticizes the «Disastrous radio management». In its opinion, the closing channel 9 reveals the defeat of the managerial politics of the records of regulation of employment (ERE), since in its opinion they are «much more harmful than a widespread wages descent: starting by the drastic clipping of salaries of the incompetent managers and its immediate relief if they are not capable of straightening the situation up».
José Lladró Dolz (Almácera, January 3, 1928) is a businessman and Spanish artist known by its artistic pieces of ceramics. Along with its brothers Juan and Vicente they created one of the most important ceramic companies of Spain.
Lladro was born in the pueblecito of the Valencian garden of Almácera, son of the farmers Juan Lladró Cortina and Rosa Dolz Pastor. It was the second one of three brothers. Although he began studying, at the age of fifteen it left along with its older brother Juan the formation to begin being employed at Azulejera Valenciana. After a brief interval to expire with the military service, Lladro returned to its province with a reputable reputation of artist and sculptor. It cost him to enter the prestigious factory Víctor Nalda along with its brothers Juan and Vicente. In this factory, Lladro and its brothers learned and developed its talent as sculptors. Soon, they would join the School of Arts and crafts of San Carlos, Valencia, where Juan and Jose studied drawing, painting and decorative composition, while Vicente devoted himself to the sculpture. Several of its works of that epoch can turn at present in the Museum Lladro of New York.
Beginning of the family enterprise
The brothers Lladró began creating their own sculptures in a small stove constructed in the courtyard of the paternal house, in her after its first simple experiments like decorated plates, paintings on tiles and some vase, soon the first orders were obtained for big companies like for example simple flowers of ceramics. All these pieces without a definite even proper style are high quality and of an exquisite invoice. This activity was not late in becoming incompatible with the work in the factory, which finally they her had to leave, principally for differences with the proprietor.
In the 50s, they managed to assemble the necessary money to create its own business. Like that he was like the brothers Lladró they forged, in 1953, what would turn into a company of fame and of universal vocation. With the time, that small business of classic sculptures would turn into a framework of companies of diversified activity, with real estate and agrarian business, and up to leather complements. Nevertheless, the company that makes the porcelains, in a process entirely handmade, it would keep on being the Lladró flagship in the City of the porcelain, a complex raised in the outskirts of Valencia. Three brothers began traveling and visiting national and international fairs of the sector to sell its figures. The style of Lladró, always naturalistic, has evolved from the outstanding figure up to whom certain neo incorporates sentimental romanticism.
In 1959, the company moved to a ship of the nearby population of Tabernes Blanques, because the demand had overcome the expectations, there will be born its three daughters, Rosa Mª, Mª Carmen and Mª José, fruit of its marital union with Carmen Castelló who will share all its life next to you.
In 1960 the word «Spain« joined to the logotype like clear expression of the exporting vocation of the company. The Lladró logo consists of a flower of the campanillo, very popular in the area, and a bond that represents a symbol of the ancient alchemy (the union of the nature with the science).
(Information extracted from the book “The Legacy of Lladró”)
The mark Lladró goes out to the international market
In the sixties the company initiated its expansion for the national territory and put the first link of a chain of shops abroad with its implantation in the United States, from which «they came to look for us», as remembers José Lladró, and where the company obtains the third of its global invoicing.
There is inaugurated in 1962 the School of Professional training, located in the same factory of Tabernes Blanques where they begin giving matters straight related to the process of creation of the porcelain (drawing, painting, sculpture, art history, etc).
In 1965 the Lladró sculptures begin interfering on exterior markets, the North American, principally. A punctual alliance with a small enterprise dedicated to the commercialization of articles about gift, Weil Ceramics, was the beginning of a long-term strategy, which allowed a commercial proper structure in the United States and to obtain an enormous implantation that helped to enter strongly on the different Anglo-Saxon markets.
Already, on November 2, 1967, a sleep was reached with the construction of the City of the porcelain which was planned by the idea of creating the best conditions to develop an artistic work combined with the sport and the free time. This way in 1968 as precursor of new and future strategies of diversification there is created “Vessel” as the second mark of figures of porcelain faced to a younger and carefree public.
With a pioneering and united attitude not regulated by the law and a moral obligation, it began joining disabled persons to its staff, which influenced positively the rest of workpeople thanks to the determination of these in demonstrating that they were so capable as the others and stimulating this way the rest of its partners.
In 1969, the minister of that time of Industry Gregorio López, inaugurates the first facilities of the City of the porcelain. Free spaces, gardens, sports areas to practise the swimming, soccer or tennis, free time areas opened the whole year at the disposal of the families of the workpeople to enjoy the complex and this way to create a more favorable climate between all those who were taking part in the project.
Till then they were making and decorating faience pieces, but soon they decided to experiment with other materials and another type of designs. They started with small figures that were trying to imitate those of Royal Copenhagen, considered to be those of major quality. Even, it gave Three Magi pope Pablo VI, but this one recycled them offering a statue to each of the astronauts who traveled to the Moon in 1969-Armstrong, Aldrin and Collins – because he thought that they were the God’s messengers in the exterior world.
In 1970 Potter’s clay incorporated the line, with the image of a girl reading. The peculiar luminosity of this material fascinated to the clientele and to the critics, and on the following year there arose the line of the vases, an excellent way of expression for the painters of the company. In 1973 the Lladró had already enough capital to acquire 50 % of Weil Ceramics and Glass, with what they strengthened its presence on the American market. In 1974 the first sculptures of the collection threw Elite and they began applying the emblematic brilliant blue by means of a kidling he traces placed in the base of every piece before painting it.
In 1984, the generational relief at the head of the company there joins to the Council of Administration of the company, Pink daughter of Juan Lladró, Mari Carmen, daughter of José Lladró and Juan Vicente son of Vicente Lladró.
In 1985 there was born the Collectors’ Society, which assembles more than hundred thousand fixed clients lover of the porcelains Lladró and that they enjoy certain advantages at the time of acquiring products of limited throw. In January of the same year Juan Lladró signed the joint venture agreement with the Japanese distribution signature Mitsui. On September 18, 1988 there was inaugurated the Museum and Gallery Lladró of New York, in the street 57 of Manhattan and, with the foundation of Lladró USA and Ordal Australia consolidated the expansion of the company in the United States and Australia.
In 1986 there is signed in January the agreement on the formation of a joint enterprise (joint venture) with the group Mitsui, up to this distribution moment of the porcelains Lladró in Japan. As a result of this alliance the branch Bussan Lladró is created in Tokyo.
(Information extracted from the book “The Legacy of Lladró”, lideditorial.com)
From the sales to the museums
In 1988 on September 18 there is inaugurated the Museum and Gallery Lladró of New York, in a restored building that there preserves the whole town-planning delight of the twenties placed in the street 57 of Manhattan. There found the branches Lladró United Kingdom, Lladró USA and Ordal Australia.
The fame acquired by the sculptures Lladró propitiated that in 1991 a selection of the same ones was exhibited in the exclusive Museum of the Ermitage, in Saint Petersburg. Since then, two pieces are part of the permanent collection of this emblematic museum: Chariot XVIIIth century and Don Quixote.
In 1992, Lladró is present in the Pavilion of Valencia in the Universal Exhibition Expo 92, in Seville. In him they exhibit the most emblematic pieces, together with an exhibition that details the phases of creation of a sculpture of porcelain.
In 1993 Lladró receives the Award Prince Felipe to the Managerial Excellency, in the paragraph Internationalization.
In 1994 Lladró receives the Award to the Best Spanish company. “Luz de América”, it is exhibited in the Modern Art museum of Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic). The monographic sample “Lladró closely” includes twenty-five emblematic pieces. Since then, “Luz de América” created with the motive of V centenary of the Discovery of America and donated by Lladró, occupies a space privileged in the main room of the museum.
In 1995 the Center Lladró is inaugurated in Madrid. With such a motive, he installs to himself a special exhibition that it assembles about half a hundred of works inspired by the city of Madrid; on March 26, 1997, the Center Lladró de Beverly Hills, a building of big dimensions common work of Juan Vicente Lladró, Rafael Tamarit and the renowned American architect Ki Suh Park, and in 1999, the Center Lladró in Las Vegas. With the collection Inspiration Millennium the welcome happened to the third millenium and another Center Lladró was inaugurated in the heart of Sydney. In 2001 there was born Lladró Privilege, a program of clients’ fidelización.
In 1997 again Lladró receives the Award Prince Felipe to the Managerial Excellency in the paragraph Aptitude to Compete.
In 2002 Lladró receives for third time the Award Prince Felipe to the Managerial Excellency, in this occasion in the category Management of the Renowned Mark.
Process of creation
Every work Lladro is the fruit of a laborious artistic process. The sculptors work encouraged by its inspiration but also they carry out, when the work needs it, a meticulous papers process. It is the case of pieces or collections that reflect other cultures, in which all the details look after to the maximum.
From an idea, the sculptor realizes the first sketch of the new figure in mud, which will be examined and approved by the Committee of Creativity, in which, between other members, there is a representation of the family Lladró. The sketch in mud is reproduced in cast to give place to the first mold, from which the definitive molds will arise to create the figure in porcelain.
A figure of medium-sized size can need from 15 to 20 molds, coming to 300 in case of complex pieces. The fragments that arise from these molds join with liquid porcelain pasta to obtain an exact reproduction of the original model.
After the reconstruction of the figure one proceeds to the decoration, in accordance with the indications of the sculptor, and there is recorded the surface of the piece, until now smooth, with the delicate motives that will give him its final aspect. In this process it is provided with expression to the faces of the sculptures and the most minimal details are outlined cautiously. Also, there proceeds to make itself up the figure, which later will be covered with a varnish layer if it must present a finished sheen, to award the finished crystalline one so typical of Lladró.
Some Lladró sculptures present also one of the most valued elements and diferenciadores of the mark: the flowers. Each one is realized entirely to hand, following a very delicate process, connecting the petals one to one, in order to obtain the only and unrepeatable creations.
The cooking in the stove
Finally, the sculpture is submitted to the acid test: nearly 24 hours in the stove to more of 1300th C. The porcelain vitrifica, the varnish crystallizes and the real colors Lladró, which till now were remaining secret, go out to the surface.
As soon as the making process was concluded, the sculpture spends for diverse quality controls. Most of the pieces come perfect at the end of the process, but those that do not fulfill the quality standards Lladró are destroyed.
A wide team of artists helps to create the sculptures Lladró, doing that every piece is only: painters, ornamentadores, artists of flowers.
All of them contribute its knowledge and experience for the attainment of a work of the maximum artistic and technical quality.
Boutiques Lladró is the authorized points of sale, Lladró is present in the most important cities of the world with the Boutiques Lladró, always located in the most exclusive commercial districts.
The Boutiques appear like modern spaces in which the decoration and the lighting seduce the spectator, exhibiting an elegant selection of pieces that gain visibility and leading role.
Lladró is one of five marks leaders on a global scale, according to the Forum of Spanish Renowned Marks. The company is present in more than 120 countries of the whole world and its creations in china are provided with thousands of admirers.
If somone wants to be part of Lladro team, send to Lladro your resume.
All the information that Lladro should receive will be considered to be confidential and it will only be consulted for a possible need for personnel that fits to its profile.
Lladró believe all its figures in The City of the Porcelain located in Tavernes Blanques (Valencia). The first facilities were inaugurated in 1969 and with the world implantation of the signature they were extended progressively until 100.000 reached m2 that it has at present.
The City of the Porcelain is a big space conceived for the artistic creation, with luminous studies and workshops, all this placed in a spacious enclosure that is provided with sports facilities and wide gardens.
The City of the Porcelain is an open space to everything the one that wants to know it, a program of visits that allows to contemplate how its craftsmen work and to know the Museum Lladró. Every year there visit the complex approximately 15.000 fans of the chinas Lladró.
The beginnings of 2010 mark backing of the line Lladró Atelier, a space conceived for to promote the creativity of internal designers of the mark like that like giving capacity to new projects day pupils in china.
Under the artistic direction of Jaime Hayon, in Lladró Atelier is included collections like The Parrot Party, Metropolis or The Guest, between others.
The Parrot Party Collection Leones guards (2011) Beyond being a collection, the project The Guest is a platform for the artists’ collaboration of different disciplines with Lladró.
An invitation to top artists of the whole world to give a distinctive personality to an original personage of china created by Jaime Hayon. In constant evolution, Lladró is always reinvented in its new outstanding figures across showy colors, original forms or novel textures.
Trio of jazz (2011) Gradually, the mark increases in these years the creation of pieces that pay tribute to the oriental traditions and to its rich iconography. A tendency that is connected with the consolidation in emergent countries like China or the India.
One of the most important facts of this stage takes place when, after fifty years at the head of the company, three founding brothers decide to transfer its witness the second generation Lladró, which enters in 2003 the new Council of Administration.
Later, in 2007, the biggest of the founding brothers, Juan Lladró, assumes the property of the company accompanied by its Pink daughters and Angels, the President and Vice-president of Lladró S.A. This decade is marked by the Lladró bet for new lines in the decoration of the hearth with pieces that unite beauty and functionality.
This way, Lladró becomes strong in the sector of the lighting and gets in the ambiences of the bath with the line Lladró Bath, in that of the Art of the Table, with Naturofantastic, or in that of the fragrances for the hearth with the collection Lladró Fragrances.
Oval mirror Re-deco (2007) Chandelier Niagara 1,10 m. (2006). Naturofantastic Colección Lladró Bath (2006).
It is also the moment to take new esthetic roads that coexist with its outstanding figures. There are the essential ones of Lladró, sculptures of more synthetic lines and finished mate, provided of pronounced symbolism and in that the use of the dull china decorated in most cases in target sharpens the force of the modeling. You are me
angel (2004) Also, Lladró promotes in 2005 the project Re-Cyclos, in which important designers create new objects from classic pieces of the mark.
In its first edition the creative team CuldeSac prepared original crowns and geodes from Christmas ornaments while Bodo Sperlein created complements of jewelry shop and decoration in Lladró Re-Cyclos Magical.
On the other hand, from 2006 the company has been provided with the collaboration of the recognized designer Jaime Hayon, who creates for the mark the collection The Fantasy.
Lladró Re-Cyclos Magical (2006) Vase Conversation Vase I crowned with The Lover II, 2008)
Fruit of the constant desire to take to the limit all the expressive possibilities of the china in its collection of Alta Porcelana, the maximum artistic category of the mark.
Inside the same one, in 2006 there is born the monumental sculpture The queen of the Nile, which with its any more than 160 centimeters long is never the biggest bulging piece of a china workshop.
The queen of the Nile (2006) other sculptures follow her in the same line, some of them inspired by icons of other cultures, like the Ganeshas hindúes or Japanese Hina Dolls, which demonstrate how Lladró has been able to tackle the persons’ different sensibilities of five continents.
The nineties confirm the success of the artistic and professional trajectory of the brothers Lladró, whose works will receive important awards and will be exhibited in several cities of the whole world.
In a space of ten years Lladró receives the maximum recognition to its professional trajectory: the Awards Prince Felipe to the Internationalization (1993), to the Competitiveness (1997) and to the Management of Renowned Mark (2001). Three awards that the brothers gather from hands of the Prince of Asturias and that suppose a milestone for the company.
In 1991 the Museum Hermitage of Saint Petersburg, considered to be a reference in art in the world, receives an exhibition of sculptures of Lladró of which the Chariot XVIIIth century and Don Quixote they will happen to be part of its permanent collection. Later, Lladró exhibits a selection of its emblematic pieces in the pavilion of Valencia in the Universal Exhibition of Seville, as well as in the Modern Art museum of Santo Domingo.
Neoclassic Cup lilium (1998, Collection Caprices) Center Lladró de Beverly Hills.
During this decade, Lladró continues its expansion in some of the most important cities of the world. In 1996 there is inaugurated the first proper shop of Madrid, located in the exclusive street Mountain, and one year later there is opened the Center Lladró de Beverly Hills. It is a question of a building with a bold and elegant design placed in 408 North Rodeo Drive.
With more than 40 years of trajectory, the signature looks at the past and identifies its outstanding figures. One of them is the handmade work of the flowers, which its maximum exponent has in the series Caprices, formed by delicate floral compositions and elegant bouquets. Prepared one to one with extraordinary pulse and patience, in these floral centers he emphasizes the elegant recreation of the model, from the velvety texture of the corolla up to the ribs of the sheets.
On the other hand, Lladró loads the inks in the freshness and spontaneity of the original sketch in the series The In Goya’s style ones. This collection moves to the area of the sculpture the vigor with which the painter outlines on the role its creations.
The 90s is also the period of the big compositions, of the complex scenes in which many personages live together.
In this sense, The arrival of the Dogsbody is one of the most significant pieces of the Lladró history.
In the 80 the brothers Lladro open the doors of its company for the future and give the entry of three of its children in the Council of Administration.
On the other hand, this decade supposes the international Lladró expansion in diverse countries where its china creations are very valued.
In 1986 the company signs an agreement of Joint Venture with the group Mitsui, which till then was the distributor of its figures in Japan, and as a result from this alliance the branch arises in this country, to which they will continue China, Australia, the United States and the United Kingdom. On September 18 of this year there is inaugurated the Museum Lladró of New York, placed in the exclusive street 57 of Manhattan, a building that the town-planning delight of the 20s preserves. The flowers position In the creative plane, in 1982 presents one of the big milestones to itself of the mark, Position of flowers, a piece with hundreds of flowers that gives place to a composition full of grace and freshness with big artistic value.
The flowers have always had a very important meaning for Lladró, since its making needs a mastery high degree.
A group of artists devotes himself exclusive to this activity, preparing petal to petal this element typical of the creations Lladró.
Orfeo with violoncello (1988) During these years, the family Lladró continues its incessant search of new routes of expression for its creations.
Thus there are born new collections as Sculptures, which there gathers the heredity of the classic sculptural tradition.
There are works of big format, in editions much limited never superior to 300 units, in which the artists of Lladró overturn all its creative capacity with full freedom.
(1985) In 1985 there is born the Collectors’ Society, which assembled throughout fifteen years more than hundred thousand lovers of the china of art and which first annual sculpture was Payasito with puppies.
The 70 will be marked by the Lladró backing on the North American market. The logotype changes to look for an association between science and art, bases of the creation in china, from the union between an ancient chemical symbol and the stylized version of a “campanillo”, a frequent flower in the region where Lladró was born.
The surname of the founders is printed under this graphic symbol.
The hunt (1974) Dances excited (1973) Lladró it throws in this decade the new line of Potter’s clay, a material that allows to realize sculptures of big format and contributes warmth to the pieces, for its earthy tonality and its finished mate.
The figures of Potter’s clay do not make themselves up but there are applied to them different layers of enamels that after the cooking give place to varied chromatic effects, extending the expressive possibilities. Also in the 70 there arises the line of the vases, an excellent way so that the Lladró painters reflect its mastery in the recreation of birds and floral motives of oriental inspiration.
In 1974 the first sculptures of the collection create Elite, which includes the sculptures of major technical complexity, generally creations of big size that enjoy the highest consideration of the brothers Lladro.
In these years the word “Spain” joins to the logotype of Lladro like clear indicator of the exporting vocation of the company.
In 1965 Lladró was exporting part of its production to Canada and was beginning interfering in the United States, where the brothers will travel for the first time in 1969.
The City of the China.
Another axis of the big growth experienced on this stage is the starting in 1962 of a School of Professional training in the bosom of the company, with the target to transmit the experience and the extract of the creative spirit of the brothers Lladró.
In 1967 there begins the construction of The City of the China, an area in which along with buildings of factories and offices sports infrastructures are located for the enjoyment of the workpeople.
On October 13, 1969 this novel complex is inaugurated. Almost at the same time, the brothers Lladró carry out a pioneering measurement, on having offered jobs in its staff to persons with disabilities, giving sample of its worry for encouraging the social and labor integration.
Sad Harlequin (1969) marks a creative inflection point in the artistic Lladro evolution.
The stylized lines of the figure and its romantic air will characterize for years the style Lladró, appreciated in the whole world.
In 1953 the brothers Juan, Jose and Vicente Lladro prepare its first creations with an experimental vocation in a Moorish stove constructed in their own native house, in Almàssera (Valencia). Jose, Juan and Vicente Lladro in 1960. This way they give gone out for its artistic worry while they are employed at a factory of tiles and chinas. These pieces, carefully conceived, already possess a special delight that wakes up the interest of the public. Stove Moorish in that they started to realize its works the brothers Lladro. Valencian with pitcher (years 50) In the middle of this decade, they begin realizing sculptures in which it is possible to appreciate a clear influence of the tendencies of seven hundred. These pieces evoke the works of the manufactures of china of the past, like Meissen, Sèvres or Capodimonte. In 1958 Juan, José and Vicente decide to devote themselves exclusively to his own works and move its small enterprise to a ship in the nearby population of Tavernes Blanques, since the familiar workshop has remained a child.
The demand of the creations Lladró acquires unexpected dimensions.
The brothers introduce innovations not only in the design and the style of the figures but also in the skills of cooking, managing to limit the cooking of three stages to one. The monocooking is a method precursor who allows to obtain the finished crystalline one and the tonalities cake proper of the works Lladro. An increasing number of sculptors, chemists and decorators multiplies the work of the founders, who decide to incorporate a logotype into all its figures.
Along with the legend “Chinas Lladró” they reproduce a masterpiece of the Greek culture, Victoria of Samotracia, associating its surname with the ideal of the classic art.
At the end of this decade, Lladró opens a shop in Valencia and there will be still two more, in a few years.
Lladro is a Spanish company of porcelain and ceramic products with head office in the Valencian locality of Tabernes Blanques.
The mark Lladro appeared for the first time in 1953, when the brothers Juan, Jose and Vicente Lladró began preparing its first ceramics pieces in a Moorish stove constructed in its familiar house in Almácera (Valencia). In that moment the brothers Lladro were employed for foreign account at a factory of tiles and chinas.
In 1958 they moved its company to an industrial ship in the population of Tabernes Blanques to be able to face to the increasing demand of its pieces. Seguidamente, from the sixties the company initiated its international expansion, which led her to being at present one of the companies of reference in the luxurious ceramics.
In 1965 Lladró was exporting part of its production to Canada and it began interfering in the United States. During the year 1970 there took place a significant increase of the products Lladró on the North American market. Also in the middle of the seventies Lladro began selling its products in Japan.
The fame acquired by the sculptures Lladro propitiated that in 1991 a selection of the same ones was exhibited in the Museum of the Ermitage, in Saint Petersburg. Since then, two pieces are part of the permanent collection of this museum: “Chariot XVIIIth century» and «Don Quixote«.
In 1992 Lladró was present in the Pavilion of Valencia in the Universal Exhibition of Seville. In 1995 the Center Lladró was inaugurated in Madrid. In 1988 there was inaugurated the Museum and Gallery Lladró of New York.
Prince Felipe has received the company even in three occasions the Award to the Managerial Excellency (1993, 1997 and 2002).
In 2003, the society decided to break the family Lladro. Three branches of the family, which were distributing the company to 33 %, reached an agreement to distribute it. At the end of 2003 there was constituted a new council of administration in which each of three founding brothers was represented by two of its children: Juan Lladró for Rose and Angels Lladró Sala; José Lladró for Mª Carmen and Mª José Lladró Castelló; and Vicente Lladró for Juan Vicente and David Lladró Roig. In 2007 Juan Lladró assumes the property of the business in most cases, along with its Pink daughters and Ángeles.1
Manufacture of the figures
All the pieces are prepared in the workshops of The City of the China in Tavernes Blanques. The original piece splits into fragments of which molds are obtained. These molds are refilled by liquid china pasta, giving place to the parts that later are mended using china pasta as an adherent. Different ornamental elements, like for example the flowers, are added later to hand on the mended piece.
Next the pieces make themselves up to hand and are varnished. Finally they are cooked during about twenty hours and once gone out of the stove diverse quality control processes are applied to them
The factory of porcelain of Gien is in the French locality of Gien placed in the department of Loiret, in the region Center of France. Between many factories dedicated to the ceramics and porcelain in the XIXth century, Gien is one of the most renowned.
The establishment of fayenza or thin porcelain of Gien has stood out in the art of the imitation, and makes copies of models of the past, at an accessible price. The only pieces also decorators of big talent have been created by the painters’ help, by new models or being inspired in those of previous centuries (XVIIth and XVIIIth centuries) of other European centers or of the distant East.
In the year 1821, the English businessman Thomas Edme Hulm, called “Entrance hall” as its father. After losing the factory of porcelain of Creil-Montereau directed by its family from 1774, he acquired areas and buildings of the ancient convent of the order of the Minimums of the XVIth century, in Gien, to install a new factory, of porcelain of English style, which later was much recognized inside sector.
The company experienced financial difficulties very quickly and changed hands several times during the period 1826-1862. In 1842, the company, called «Guyon Boulen of that time and Cie», takes charge of its local competitor, the “Faïencerie Briare” in that moment in difficulty financiers, losing the control on her one more year. Between 1864 and 1866, there arose the need for money — in particular due to the caused damages for the big flood of the Loire in this last year — and this provoked the arrival of a new silent partner, buying Jean-Félix Bapterosses of ex-”Faïencerie” Briare turned since then into «Mosaics Briare». After passing for other names and associates, the society took finally the name of «Faïencerie de Gien« in 1875 owing to its transformation in corporation, being the first president of administration Jean-Félix Bapterosses.4 your progeny maintained the control of the factory until 1983; Xavier Chodron de Courcel was the relative last to be a president director-general.
The production was praised by the pieces utilitarian and faced towards the making of services of table, with decoration of coats of arms of the big families. The important production of lamps of oil or of oil was a Gien characteristic. In 1882, the company began the parallel tiles manufacture for walls revetments. In this sense, the factory received a special order for the meter of Paris in 1906 — the beveled blue acquaintances of 7,5 x15 cm-.5 The tiling production continued until the year 1980.
Inkwell of the year 1878 preserved in the Museum of Marseilles.
The porcelain dies or Gien faience developed the skill of the enamel cloisonné, born in Longwy in Lorraine, in 1870. The climax of the production of Gien was between 1855 and 1900, during this period numerous awards were awarded in the main international exhibitions, like those of 1855, 1867, 1878, 1889 and 1900.
In December, 1983, the company declared itself in bankruptcy. It was Pierre Jeufroy who resumed its activity in 1984 with 108 employees. Drastic measures were taken in its organization, the production area diminished and not profitable products moved back from the catalog. The ceramics designed by artists were used to develop a new scale of offer more alta.
The porcelain is provided with numerous decorations inspired by other works realized in diverse factories:
called “Gien” in brown, black or blue fund, with decoration of the wall tile of the Italian Renaissance, of grotesque and flirtations. Carrying out an imitation in particular of the products of Faenza, Urbino or Savona;
inspired in the porcelains of Saxony, in the shape of floral adornments, musical attributes, cherubs elegantly drawn playing inside medallions surrounded with foliage in pink tones or purple, but also with blue lavender;
the called ones «horn of the plenty» or of “lambriques”, interpretations as the productions of the faience of Rouen of the XVIIIth century;
the rural or marine sceneries inspired by the porcelain of Marseilles;
the opaque porcelain with decorations printed with diverse topics like the sceneries of the region, the Channel of Briare or the Castle of Saint-Brisson or Biblical topics as the New Testament;
the porcelain called English, inspired by Josiah Wedgwood, with models in bluish white tone and blue purple.
the blue and white tones inspired by the ceramics of Delft with the programme of big flowers, peacocks, branches or scenes chinesas.
the sumptuous policromía of the Far East inspired by the porcelain proceeding from porcelain and Japan.
Museum of the ceramics
The company is provided with a museum placed in the precincts of the buildings of the factory. It is possible to admire a collection of pieces of porcelain done by the factory between 1820 and 1920, as well as the reconstruction of a dining room that dates of the XIXth century. The museum founded in 1986, consists of three salas.
The Loiret area is one of the most visited places of interest, with 18.157 visitors in the year 2011.
Porcelain Factory Creil-Montereau
The factory of porcelain of Creil-Montereau is a production of ceramics of the populations of Montereau, in the department of Seine and Marne and of Creil, in the department of Heard in France.
Founded in the year 1797, the Creil manufacture.1 was quoted by Gustave Flaubert in its work sentimental education (the second Chapter). It was developed especially in the XIXth century. After the merger with the Montereau factory, the production is known as of Creil-Montereau.
The manufacture of thin porcelain of Montereau
After the installation of Jean Rognon as the first potter in the city (1720-1740), the manufacture of fayenza of Montereau was founded in 1749, to the east of the Saint-Nicolas quarter for Etienne François Mazois (1719-1762), in order to produce the well-known English porcelains. He was the initiator in 1760 of the manufacture The Royale to Nevers and the owner of that of Montereau from 1755 to 1762, it dates of its death. Its parents had a ceramics shop, in Quai de la Tournelle in V district of París.
The buy in 1774 for the Englishmen Clark, Shaw and Co. continued by the Entrance hall and Entrance hall – merlin, they obtained a big expansion of the production of the factory, before being acquired in 1819 by the owner of the factory, also dedicated to the porcelain, of Creil. The association with this one remained during the year 1840 to 1895. Later, in 1920, a new association was realized with that of Choisy, up to the definitive closing in 1955.
Plate of porcelain decorated with pattern and low painting Creil enamel, 1827-1840, Museum of Gallé-Juillet de Creil.
The manufacture of fayenza and porcelain of Creil
The factory was founded for the first time on May 26, 1797 by a glazier of Paris, Robert Bray O’Reilly. It lasted little more than one year. The development of this institution was started of permanent form in 1801. In 1840 it was giving employment to 900 workers and it closed its doors in 1895.
Many directors and owners are identified by this one fábrica:5
Jacques Bagnall (born in 1762 in Burslem (England), was a disciple of Josiah Wedgwood. It came to France in 1784, and worked as modelista in the factory of «English potter’s clay» of Douai. Then it directed the factory of porcelain of Chantilly before coming to manage the Creil factory from 1802. As artistic director realized a few beautiful pieces, sometimes copying the English fashion and styles of Wedgwood of the epoch. The service pieces in «black potter’s clay» exhibited in Creil are a good example, like some soup tureens or bowls with the yellow fund English instead of the typical blue of the model.
Charles Gaspard Alexander Saint-Cricq Casaux was proprietary and a main shareholder of the factory from 1811. It was him who managed to fuse with the manufacture of Montereau that he acquired in 1819.
Louis Martin Lebeuf (1792-1854) and Jean Baptiste Gratien Milliet (1797-1875) turned into the proprietors in 1841; the Englishmen George Vernon and son, were the director and assistant director until 1849 they are those who introduced the porcelain of soft pasta in Creil.
Henry Félix Anatole Barluet (born in 1802 in Aigle) happened to Vernon. He was a descendant from the family Lebeuf on the part of mother. Louis Lebeuf was the director of the manufacture of Montereau. Its son, Adrien Lebeuf de Montgermont, was the mayor of this city. Barluet obtained the construction of the quarter of Saint-Médard to rent some housings to its workpeople. He was a mayor of Creil up to its death. Under its leadership, the iconography of the porcelains they were renewed. This factory was the one that he used major citizens of the city of Creil during decades. In 1866, the population census quotes 503 persons domiciled in Creil who were employed at the factory, of an entire population of 4539. In particular, there were 349 workers, 129 workers, 12 engineers in addition to the director, and three cleaners did not forget. An industrial colony called Saint-Médard was constructed in 1866 to lodge its workpeople, a politics being established in the factory paternalistic.
The group Creil and Montereau
The group was created in 1840 by the merger of two factories of Creil and of Montereau, giving birth to to the society Lebeuf and Milliet. During the second half of the XIXth century it was a period of expansion and of success of the factory with numerous awards and medallas.
In 1895, the closing of the Creil marked the beginning of the slope and with a production that stopped from its renewal. The production concentrates on Montereau. In 1920, the group of Creil-Montereau transforms in the Manufacture of Choisy-le-Roi, property of Hippolyte Boulenger. The products are marked by the symbol HBCM (Hippolyte Boulenger Creil Montereau). The Montereau factory closed definitely in 1955.
Creil puts into practice the formulae developed by Josiah Wedgwood in 1769. Contributed by the workpeople formed in England, or for the investigators like Boudon de Saint-Amans, the skills of the miscellany of the calcined sílex and ground pasta of the pottery of traditional mud, called English porcelain gave thin ceramics. Creil imitated to the perfection the productions of Wedgwood. The hard porcelain or of feldspar, also known like opaque porcelain, when the result is obtained of the addition of feldspar and kaolin.
The manufactures of Creil and Montereau and they owe its success in the decoration for the used process of transference of impression that appeared in the middle of the century XVIII. They achieved with the inks to use that they contain metallic oxides, this method allows the reproduction, by means of the transference in a special role, the details and the delicacy of a badge of engraved copper, to a mud object. This process made to enter the ceramics in the industrial age, a craftsman can print of 200 up to 250 plates per day. The topics include the whole religious images of the XIXth century: technical, industrial, political and social, the mythology, the literature, the fine arts and the scenes genre.
The transferred motives can be left natural (effect of gray), covered with a translucent enamel on what a green or yellow color one met to the models, or painted to hand in the design transferred for coloring scenes.
Plate decorated with birds.
The floral decoration was one of the biggest commercial successes of the Creil factory in the second half of the XIXth century. Compound of flowers and sheets printed on glazed low blue, this decoration appeared in the Universal Exhibition of 1855 in Paris. The porcelains with floral motives printed on blue on white fund, had multiple versions: the creeper, iris of the vale, the holly, rose and hawthorn.
Museums and collections of porcelain of Creil-Montereau
Montereau: in 1985, there was inaugurated a specialized museum opened in the ancient Hotel give Posts of Montereau. There appears a selection of 400 pieces that illustrate the evolution of the forms and decorations of all the epochs.
Creil: The Museum Gallé-Juillet de Creil, labeled like Musée de France. The marriage formed by Auguste and Berthe Gallé, without children after the death in combat of its only son Maurice, during the Big War, they donate in 1930 its house and quite she contains the municipality to do a museum with the request of maintaining its appearance. The museum is preserved by the decoration and the furniture of a bourgeois house of the XIXth century. The museum also has a big collection of ceramics of Creil and of Creil-Montereau. This house was inhabited in its origin by the Frenchman Jacques Bagnall, the director of the factory Creil.
Factory of Porcelain from Vista Alegre is a factory from Portuguese porcelain.
The enterprise, for his history and tradition, supports itself the most emblematic of eleven industrial unities that compose the group, producing nearly 10 million pieces in a year, between decorative and domestic porcelain.
The Vista Alegre was established by Thick José Ferreira Pinto, who would give beginning to a family of businessmen that is maintained relevant in the present. Up to the end of the century XVIII, Portugal had not any industry that was manufacturing porcelain, when the biggest importer is of this a material of porcelain.
Influenced by the success of the factory from glass of the Big Navy, Thick Chick decided to create a factory from porcelains, glass and chemical processes. It began because of acquiring, in 1815, Thursday of the Small church, a beautiful siege near to the town of Ílhavo and on the edge of the river branch of Aveiro, rich region in fuels, clay, white and fine sands and crystallized pebbles, basic elements for glasses and porcelains. Little then, he bought nearby lands, in a forty hectares total, and threw itself in his project.
The permit that authorized the functioning of the Factory of the Vista Alegre was granted in 1824, for the king D. John VI, passing this one benefiting of all the graces, privileges and exemptions which they enjoy, or enjoying future, the National Factories. Five years later, the Vista Alegre received the title of Real Factory, a recognition for his art and industrial success. From 1832, the Factory intensified his work and one dedicated to the improvement from the porcelain.
The contribution of foreign artists, such as Victor Rousseau, it was important, especially for the creation of a school of painting, still today famous. In this period of the history of the Vista Alegre, there are marked facts as the development of a social work, the introduction of decorations to gold and subjects with sceneries and delicate flowers, the participation in contests (Paris and Palace from Crystal in Oporto) and, for last, the ceasing of the production from glass (1880).
To the end of the Great War, the period of brilliance of the factory was even obscured, since the social disturbances directed the enterprise to great difficulties. Nevertheless, the spirit introduced by the founder and the maintenance of the school of drawing and painting for the painter Duarte José de Magalhães stimulated the reorganization and modernization of the enterprise.
From 1922 to 1947, an enormous artistic renovation was registered, when the artists’ collaboration of national renown is standing out, such as Roque Gameiro, Raul Lino, Suckling pig from Clays, Piló, Dauphin Maia, between others.
To the 15th of December of 1932 it was made – Official of the Civil Order of the Agricultural Merit and Industrial Classe Industrial.1
Between 1947 and 1968, the Vista Alegre carried out international contacts, the formation of specialized technical pictures and the acquisition of the main contestant, to Amber-pottery. In the decade of 1970, the factory gave important steps in his technological modernization and paid more attention to the formation of young painters.
In 1983, it created the Office of Artistic Direction (GOA) and, two years later, the Center of Art and Development of the Enterprise (WHERE), with the purpose of promoting the creativity and contributing to the formation in the areas of drawing, painting and sculpture. Consequently, there were born the limited series of pieces of porcelain, called special series and commemorative pieces.
In May of 2001, there was familiar the fusion of the Vista Alegre with the group Atlantis, forming the biggest national group of utensils of table and sixth bigger than the world in this sector: the Group Accepted Cheerful Atlantis, which acts in several areas. In 2002 there was ended a process of industrial reengineering, which there allowed to increase the capacity and volume of production.
To the 19th of January of 2009, the Group Visabeira launches one WOW to the Vista Alegre and adquite the total control of the mark.
The Factory of Doccia, is the porcelain factory of Florence founded in 1735 by the marquis Carlo Ginori on a locality near Colonnata, village of Sesto Fiorentino in Italy.
She became famous worldwide for her porcelain production of which is still located to Sesto Fiorentino, in spite of its fusion with the Milanese group Augusto Richard, possessing other firms in 1896, and become Richard-Ginori, then Richard-Ginori 1735.
The adjacent Museo di Doccia shows his many production and are visible there those exits of the waxen moulds of Massimiliano Soldani-Benzi, medaillist of Cosme III de Médicis.
The Rosenthal society is a German firm of porcelain manufacture.
The firm was founded in 1879 as a family factory. The founder of the society, Philippe Rosenthal, who had first settled in Werl (Westphalia), became established then in Selb in Bavaria in the castle of Erkersreuth where he developed and industrialized the workshop of painting.
In 1897 the Rosenthal business company founded the Bauer business company, Rosenthal and Cie in Kronach.
Production met a big success mainly in the period ofArt nouveau.
The society founded a museum of the porcelain in Selb-Plössberg.
Johann Joachim Kändler, (Fischbach in Saxony, on June 15, 1706 – May 18, 1775, Meißen). He was a German sculptor, patternmaker of porcelain.
He married a daughter of the ceramist of the manufacture of Dresden, Peter Eggerbrecht. In this city, in 1723, he was a disciple of sculptor Benjamín Thomare and he reached the teacher’s title in sculpture in 1730. In 1731, Augusto Fortress sent him to the factory of porcelain of Meissen, like assistant of Johann Gottlieb Kirchner, in the modeling department. In 1733, it replaced him and he was the teacher of the factory up to its death on May 18, 1775.
Kändler filled two finished periods of the factory, the period plastiche (1735-63) and the academicista period or Punktzeit (1764-74). The marks of these periods are two crossed swords jerky or stamped on blue, to which in the Punktzeit a point is added between the watches. In cardinal works the signature appears also of K.
The work of Kändler, it is characterized by the perfection of the modeling, the imaginative wealth, the realism in suits and adornments that contrast with a few skin colors scarcely insinuated. It was also the introductor of Deutsche Blumen, or decoration with European flora, in replacement of Indianische Blumen or oriental flora.
Although it was employed especially at the Kleinplastik, statuettes destined to adorn the table, it realized also monumental works as frames of mirrors and a console for Luis XV. There are numerous the figures inspired by the Comedy of the art, parallel bars, although not Superiors, to the haughty series of 16 that, about 1760, Francesco Antonio Bustelli created in Nymphenburg (Bavaria).
The famous porcelain of the Swan, for the count of Brühl, was begun in 1737 and, in 1738 it was the one that served like wedding gift for Maria Amalia of Saxony, decorated in green and gold, with scenes of Watteau (v.) . Also it shaped allegorical sets of the stations, groups and statuettes with paniers garments; series of masks as the Bergleute and exotic birds inspired by those that Augusto Fortress was possessing in Moritzburg. In 1747 owing to the trip of the rhino Egg white to the city, took it as a model to do a statuette. Its groups of satirical personages reach an enormous expressiveness, for example, the Affenkapelle, series of musicians uninterruptedly copied until our days.
Johann Friedrich Böttger, German Alchemist (February 4, 1682, Schleiz – March 13, 1719, Dresden) was a chemist and German alchemist. It is known for being one of the first creators of porcelain in Europe, it worked in the beginnings of the factory of Meissem.
Böttger, which was working like pharmacy beginner in the city of Berlin, was practising the alchemy; its reputation was due to the fact that he was steadying himself of him that was capable of making gold. For this reason the king of Prussia, Federico I, wanted to have it to its service. Nevertheless, Böttger decided to escape leaving, in 1701, to Wittenberg, where it initiated its medicine studies. The King Augusto I pressed the Fortress, of Saxony, retaining it like prisoner in the jail of Dresden where one arranged everything necessary to him so that it was making gold. Böttger worked there in collaboration with the mathematician and physicist Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus, and discovered of chance form, in the year 1707, the way of making red porcelain (faience) from which it developed, one year later, the first white porcelain made of Europe. This did that in the year 1710 there was entrusted to him, after its putting at large, the direction of the manufacture of porcelain founded on the city of Dresden.
The manufacture soon moved to Meissen and reached world reputation. The revelation on the part of Böttger of some secrets of manufacture they took him again to prison.
Porcelain tableware (in Latin vascella, pl. neutral of vascellum, “small glass”) is the set of tools that use for the service of the table, that is to say, to move, to serve and to allow to consume the meal.
Components of the porcelain are the plates, the glasses and the sources. Sometimes also the silverware is considered to be a part of the porcelain, but in fact they belong to the silverware.
The porcelain contains in its simplest format the following plates:
Dinner plates – ideals for slightly loaded light plates
Soup plates – ideals to serve liquids (soups, consommés…) or fluid food.
There are added to them numerous complementary elements as the size of the porcelain:
Cups of coffee
Sources and salvers of different forms and sizes.
Plates for special food like asparagus, snails, etc.
The use of the porcelain dates back to immemorial times.
Bell-shaped glass of Ciempozuelos.
The culture of the bell-shaped glass was a prehistoric civilization of beginning of the Age of the Bronze dated between 2200 B.C. and 1900 B.C. that developed a few vessels or ceramics glasses with flared form and profusely decorated that it has been, generally in funeral contexts, in a great part of Europe, since it spread over Great Britain, Ireland, Netherlands, center of Europe and of the west of the Mediterranean Sea. The unification of the culture of Europe happened in the transit of the third one to the second millenium he explains himself in the bosom of the climate of commercial interaction created by a few elites eager for goods of prestige, between which the bell-shaped glass was. He would be interpreted as a representator of a fashion, a luxurious porcelain used by the European elites in social ceremonies in which it collaborates to the drink used also in political agreements, transmission of knowledge or matrimonial alliances. The receptacle knows that it served to drink beer or honey, according to the analysis of the grounds of the Scotch piece of Ashgrove. It is possible that across the social meetings it has spread towards western Europe.
Treasure of Villena.
In the Age of the Bronze rich metallic porcelains exist already. The Treasure of Villena, it is one of the most sensational golden finds of the European Age of Bronze. It is, in fact, the second treasure of more important golden porcelain of Europe, only overcome by that of the Real Graves of Micenas in Grecia.1 Entre the objects that compose it represent eleven golden bowls and three silver bottles.
In Greece, the archaeology has found large number of ceramics of Mycenaean epoch, of very diverse styles: pitchers, pitchers, cráteras, vases (called of «glass of wine-cellar» for its form, being the very variable size of the pitchers. Another type of porcelain, of metal (principally of bronze) has been in important quantities in the Mycenaean deposits. The forms in this case are rather the tripods, washing bowls or lamps.
In Assyria and Persia, it is known that the kings and magnates were using porcelains of gold and silver. Of the empire Assyrian, the glasses or plates of bronze stay with figures reliefs dipuestas in concentric areas, found everything in Numrudi for Layard and the cups, glasses and adornments of the same metal entonrados in the palace of Senaquerib (in Koyundjik) that today appear in the British Museum.
Treasure of Panagiuri.
The treasure found in Panagiuri has been dated you, between 300 and 280 B.C. In the necropolis of the Bulgarian district of Plovdiv, one of the most famous services was discovered in 1949 of table of the antiquity, entirely formed by a golden porcelain. Between the opposing objects they represent three pitchers (ritones) in the shape of feminine head and a big plate with heads repeated in concentric tiers, concerning a circle of acorns, of which there go out vegetable motives that cover the whole fund. The plate must have been realized in Lámpsaco, colony focense of the Dardanelles, because it represents the indication of the weight and is like that of this city.
In the Iberian art, the term Iberian ceramics usually refer in the first instance to the identical Iberian ceramics, which is a thin porcelain decorated with geometric, floral or human motives of red color vinoso. The territories of the current province of Albacete are especially bountiful as for finds of diverse samples of art. In gold work, he emphasizes the called Treasure of Abengibre, which contains a set of silver porcelain with Iberian inscriptions.
In the Roman world, between the best and most celebrated pieces of classic gold work (although already of Roman origin) that for many of them reflect the most refined Greek art considers them to be also partly Greek, they are those of the treasure of Hildesheim. They are considered to be belonging to the booty of war obtained by the Germans on having destroyed the legions of Publio Quintilio Varo (year 9) and between its beautiful porcelains and different tools of silver (the pieces of the treasure go on from seventy) are famous Pátera de Minerva with the figure of this seated goddess and the big crátera of 30 Roman pounds of weight, both with embossed figures and elegantly carved.
Pitcher of the XVIth century of the Treasure of the Dolphin (Prado Museum).
Of the primitive Christian epoch we have left the glasses of golden glass that should have served for the altar and for the celebration of the banquets. These glasses and other similar glasses in the shape of disc consist of two plates between which there spreads another thinnest of gold that has done or engraved Christian figures and inscriptions and from here the name of aureográficos comes to them.
Being part of the Spanish craft of the glass, several glasses are known and jarritas enameled and gilded that imitate those of Venice and of the XVIth century and of the XVIIth century there are in the collections of the museums some botellitas or jarritas of green glass that a multitude of handles takes about the neck and is adorned by curlings and other appendices of the same pasta or of different color to the Venetian and other glasses or porcelains of table with less adornments. Of the XVIIIth century they date some plates with a species of snood formed by filets or white millings (the lacticinios) or blue curls.
The porcelains can be acquired in diverse colors and formats although the target and beige are considered to be sober and elegant. On the other hand, the white plates are very widespread with exterior decorative mopboards.
The technical ceramics deal with the use of ceramic materials in technological applications. The ceramic word derives from the Greek word keramos, whose Sanskrit root means to “be burning hot”. In its strict sense it refers to the clay in all its forms. Nevertheless, the modern use of this term includes to all the not metallic inorganic materials that form for action of the heat (to see sinterización).
Until the year 1950, the most important materials were the traditional clays used in pottery, bricks, blue and similar, the cement and the glass. The traditional art of the ceramics is described in pottery. Also there can be looked the history of the raku, singular oriental millennial skill.
Historically, the ceramic products have been hard, porous and fragile. The study of the ceramics consists of a big methods extension to mitigate these problems and to accentuate the potentialities of the material, as well as to offer not traditional uses. This also has been looked incorporating them into composite materials as it is the case of the cermets, which combine metallic and ceramic materials.
Examples of ceramic materials
Silicon nitride (Si3N4), used as abrasive dust.
Carbide of boron (B4C), used in some helicopters and covering of tanks.
Silicon carbide (SiC), used in microwave ovens, in abrasives and like refractory material.
Diboruro of magnesium (MgB2), is not conventional superconductor.
Oxide of zinc (Zn4O), a semiconductor.
Ferrita (Fe3O4) is used in nuclei of magnetic transformers and in nuclei of magnetic memoirs.
Soapstone used as an electrical insulator.
Oxide of uranium (UO2), used like combustible in nuclear reactors
Oxide of itrio, barium and copper (YBa2Cu3O7-x), superconductor of high temperature.
Mechanical properties of the ceramics
The ceramic materials are generally fragile or glassy. Almost always they fracture before tension efforts and present few elasticity, since there tend to be porous materials. The pores and other microscopic imperfection act as you fit or concentrating of effort, limiting the resistance to the mentioned efforts.
The elasticity module reaches quite high values of the order of 311 GPa in case of the Carbide of Titanium (Tic). The value of the module of elasticity depends on the temperature, diminishing of not linear form after this one increasing.
These materials show plastic distortions. Due to the rigidity of the structure of the crystalline components there are few slides systems for movement dislocations and the distortion happens of very slow form. With the (glassy) not crystalline materials, the viscous fluency is the main cause of the plastic distortion, and also it is very slow. Nevertheless, it is omitted in many applications of ceramic materials.
They have high resistance to the compression if we compare it with the metals even to high temperatures (up to 1.500 °C). Under compression charges the incipient cracks tend to close, while under haulage charges or cizalladura the cracks tend to separate, giving place to the break.
The values of determination of break in the ceramic materials are very low (scarcely they exceed the value of 1 MPa.m1/2), values that can be increased greatly by means of methods like the reinforcement by means of fibres or the phase transformation in circonia.
An important property is the maintenance of the mechanical properties to high temperatures. Its big hardness them does a material extensively used as abrasive and as cutting tops of hardware.
Thermal protection of the spatial ferry.
Some ceramic materials can support extremely high temperatures without losing its soundness. There are the so called refractory materials. Generally they take low thermal conductivity as what they are used like insulating. For example, you depart from the spatial rockets they are constructed of ceramic tiles that protect the ship of the high temperatures caused during the entry to the ambience.
In general the ceramic materials present a good behavior to high temperature while they can suffer breaks for thermal shock to low temperatures.
Termofluencia: The conservation of the mechanical properties to high temperatures takes big importance in certain sectors like the aerospace industry. The ceramic materials possess in general a good resistance to the termofluencia. This it stems principally from two factors in case of ceramic crystalline: high values of temperature of merger and high energy of activation so that the diffusion begins.
Thermal shock: It is defined as the break of a material like result of a sudden change of temperature. This sudden change gives place to superficial tensions of haulage that lead to the break. Between the factors that determine the resistance to the thermal shock the porosity of the material takes big importance. On having diminished the porosity (to increase the thickness) the resistance to the thermal shock and the isolation characteristics diminish, while the mechanical resistance and the capacity of load increase. Many materials are used in the very porous states and it is frequent to find combined materials: a porous layer with good properties of isolation combined with a thin jacket of material denser that provides resistance, but contrasts cannot be realized specific.
Perhaps it is surprising that these materials could be used to temperatures where they are liquefied partially. For example, the refractory bricks of silicon dioxide (SiO2), used to cover stoves of smelting of steel, work to temperatures superior to 1650 °C (3000 °F), when some of the bricks begin to be liquefied. Designed for this function, a situation without scares needs a responsible control on all the aspects of the construction and use.
One of the areas of major progresses with the ceramics is its application to electrical situations, where they can open a surprising set of properties.
Electrical isolation and behavior dielectric
Most of the ceramic materials are not drivers of mobile charges, therefore they are not electricity drivers. This is due to the fact that the linkage ionic and covalente they restrict the mobility ionic and electronic, that is to say, there are good electrical insulators. When they are combined strongly, it allows to use them in the generation of energy and transmission.
The lines of high tension are generally supported by towers of transmission that contain porcelain discs, which are sufficiently insulators as to resist beams and have the mechanical resistance adapted as to support the cables.
A sub-category of the insulating behavior is the dielectric. A material dielectric maintains the magnetic field across him, without inducing loss of energy. This is very important in the construction of electrical condensers.
The ceramics dieléctrica are used in two main areas: the first one is the progressive loss of dielectricidad of high frequency, used in such applications like microwave and radio transmitters; the second one, there are the materials with tall constant dielectricidad (ferroelectric). Although the ceramics dieléctrica are low opposite to other options for most of the intentions, generally it occupies these two sayings very well.
Under certain conditions, such as extremely low temperatures, some ceramics show superconductivity. The exact reason of this phenomenon is not known, although two sets of superconductive ceramics differ.
The compound estequimétrico YBa2Cu3O7-x, generally brief YBCO or 123, is particularly very well-known because it is easy to do, its manufacture does not need any particularly dangerous material and has a transition of temperature of 90 K (what is superior to the temperature of the liquid nitrogen, 77 K). Her x of the formula it refers to the fact that must be lightly deficient in oxygen, with one x in general near to 0.3.
Another set of superconductive ceramics is the magnesium diboruro. Its properties are not particularly outstanding, but they are chemically very different from any other superconductor in which it is neither a complex of oxide of copper nor a metal. Due to this difference one hopes that the study of this material should lead the interiorización of the phenomenon of the superconductivity.
There is certain number of ceramics that are semiconductive. Most of them are metal oxides of transition that are types semiconductors II – IV, like the oxide of zinc.
The semiconductive ceramics are used like gas sensor. When several gases are spent across polycrystalline ceramics, its electrical resistance changes. Fitting the possible gas miscellanies, gas sensors can be constructed without too much cost.
Ferroelectricidad, piezoelectricidad and piroelectricidad
A material ferroeléctrico is that that spontaneously possesses an electrical polarization which sense can be invested by means of application of a sufficiently high external electrical field (histéresis ferroeléctrica). These materials exhibit multiple properties derived from its spontaneous polarization, in absence of an external electrical field, and of the possibility of its investment (memoirs of computer). The spontaneous polarization can be modified by means of electrical fields (electrostriction) or of mechanical tensions external (piezoelectricidad) and by means of changes of the temperature (piroelectricidad). The spontaneous polarization and its capacity of modification is also the origin of the high constant dieléctrica or permitividad of the ferroeléctricos, which application has in condensers.
A material piezoelectric is that that, due to possessing a spontaneous polarization, generates a voltage when pressure is applied to him or, inversely, it is deformed under the action of an electrical field. When the applied electrical field is alternate, this one produces a vibration of the piezoeléctrico. These materials find a wide applications status, principally like sensors – to turn a movement into an electrical sign or vice versa-. They are present in microphones, generators of ultrasound and meters of pressure. All the ferroeléctricos are piezoelectric, but there are many piezoeléctricos whose spontaneous polarization can change but it is not invertible and, consequently, they are not ferroeléctricos.
A material piezoelectric develops an electrical field when it warms up. Some ceramics piroeléctricas are so sensitive that they can detect changes of temperature caused by the revenue of a person to a quarter (approximately 40 microkelvin). Such devices cannot measure absolute temperatures, but temperature changes and are used in night vision and detectors of movement.
Accused of ceramic materials
The (glassy) not crystalline ceramics are usually formed of smeltings. The glass is formed by any of the following methods: blown, pressed, laminated, stretched, strained or floated and galvanized.
The crystalline ceramic materials are not capable of a varied accused status. The methods used for its handling tend to fail in one of two categories – to do ceramics in the wished form, pro reaction in situ, or for dust formation in the wished form, and then sinterizados to form a solid body. Some secondhand methods are a hybrid of two mentioned methods.
The most common use of this method is in the cement production and I limit. Here, the dehydrated abrasives are mixed by water. This gives beginning to the reactions of the hydration, which result in big, interconnected glazing forming about the aggregations. Spent a time, this results in solid ceramics.
The biggest problem with this method is that most of the reactions are so rapid that it is not possible to do a good miscellany, what the construction tends to prevent in big scale. Nevertheless, the systems to small scale can be realized by means of skills of deposit, where the different materials are introduced on a substratum, where the reaction takes place and the ceramics form on this substratum.
Shaped of the dust
The main target of the shaped one is to give form and consistency to the mass of dust that gives place to an increase of the thickness and, therefore, to a progress of the mechanical properties. There exist two ways of realizing the shaped one: by means of the application of pressure and high temperatures. With the application of pressure and temperature, the process is similar to if we were not applying high temperatures, but we obtain denser and homogeneous products simultaneously that we save raw material.
Pressed uniaxial: (in warm or in cold). It consists of the pressure application in the only direction up to obtaining the compression of the ceramic dust. The this way shaped piece will have the form of the counterfoil and the surfaces with which the pressure is applied.
Pressed isostatic in warm or in cold. It consists in compactar the dust shutting them up hermetically in flexible molds typically of gum, latex or PVC, applying pressure hydrostatics to them by means of a fluid that can be a water or oil. The foundation of this process is the Beginning of Pascal, this way we manage compactar uniformly and in all the directions the material.
Slip Casting: It is based on the moldeo for barbotina of the traditional ceramics, by means of which we obtain pieces of small thicknesses using porous molds.
Methods based on the sinterización
The beginning of the methods based on the sinterización is simple: Once the raw material is conditioned for its prosecution (batch), it is introduced in the stove, with what the process of compact diffusion to the raw material.
The pores are dwarfed, turning out to be a denser and strong product. The burned one is done to a temperature below the point of melting of the ceramics. Some porosity always stays, but the real advantage of this method is that the batch can be produced anyway imaginable, and it even can be sinterizado. This does a very versatile route.
There exist thousands of possible refinements of this process. Some of the most common involve to press the batch to give him the thickness, the fire reduces the time of necessary sintering. Sometimes, organic elements are added along with the batch, which are dissolved during the fire.
Sometimes, organic lubricants join during the process to increase the thickness. It is not strange to combine them, adding organic matter and lubricants to a batch, and then to press. (the formulation of these additives chemist organic is an art in himself). This is particularly important in the manufacture of ceramics of high performance, such as used for the electronics, in condensers, instigators, sensors, etc.
A components miscellany can be realized instead of using only one dust, and then to spill it in the wished mold, allowing it to dry and then sinterizarlo. In fact, in the traditional pottery it is done thus, using a plastic miscellany that is worn out with the hands.
If a miscellany of component different materials is used in ceramics, sometimes the sinterización temperature is bigger than the temperature of smelting of some of its components (liquid phase of sintering). This generates a shorter period of sinterización compared with the solid state sintered.
Other applications of the ceramics
It does a pair of decades, Toyota investigated the production of a ceramic engine which can work to temperatures superior to 3300 °C.
The ceramics (word derived from the Greek keramikos, “burned substance”) are the art of making receptacles, vessels and other clay objects, or another ceramic material and for action of the heat to transform them into receptacles of terracotta, faience or porcelain. Also it is the name of these objects.
The term is applied of a form so wide that it has lost good part of its meaning. Not only one applies to the industries of silicates (group of minerals of major plenty, since it constitutes more than 95 % of the earth’s crust), but also to articles and recoverings agglutinated by means of the heat, with enough temperature as to give place to the sinterizado. This field is extended again including in him to cements and enamels on metal.
The history of the ceramics is joined to the history of almost all the peoples of the world. It includes the same evolutions and you date and its study is joined to the relations of the human beings who have allowed the progress of this art.
The invention of the ceramics took place during the neolithic one, when receptacles became necessary to store the surplus of the harvests produced by the practice of the agriculture. In the beginning these ceramics were modeling themselves to hand, with skills like the pinch, the colombín or the badge (hence the aberrations of its surface), and only it allowed to dry off to the sun in the warm countries and close to the tribal fires in those of cold areas. Further on it begun to be decorated by geometric motives by means of incisions in the dry pasta, more and more complex, perfect and beautiful making determined, together with the cooking application, the appearance of a new office: that of the potter.
According to the theories difusionistas, the first peoples that initiated the making of tools of ceramics with more sophisticated skills and cooking the pieces in stoves were the Chinese. From porcelain the knowledge happened towards Korea and Japan for the East, and towards the Occident, to Persia and the north of Africa up to coming to the Iberian Peninsula. In all this trip, the skills were modified. This it stemmed from certain variants; one of them was because the clays were different. In porcelain a very pure white clay was used, the kaolin, to prepare porcelain, while in Occident these clays were difficult to find. Other variants were the decorative motives and the different methods used for the cooking.
Iberian ceramics of the IVth century B.C. (M.A.N., Madrid), found in Yellowish brown (Granada)
The invention of the potter’s winch, already in the Age of the Metals, came to improve its making and finished, like also its cooking to the stove that made her more resistant and extended the scale of colors and textures. In principle, the winch was only a wheel placed in a vertical axis of wood introduced in the area, and it was made her turn up to reaching the necessary speed to prepare the piece. Little by little it was evolving, the second top wheel interfered and one was making turn the winch by means of a movement of the foot; later there was added an engine, which was giving to the wheel different speed as the needs.
Often the ceramics have served to the archaeologists to date the deposits and, even, some types of ceramics have named prehistoric cultures. One of the first examples of prehistoric ceramics is the called ceramics cardial. It arose in the Neolithic one, owing its denomination to which it was decorated by incisions done with the conch of the cardium edule, a species of cockle. The bell-shaped ceramics, or of bell-shaped glass, are typical of the age of the metals and, more specifically, of the calcolítico, as the ceramics of The Argar (argárica) it are of the Age of the Bronze.
The Greek ceramists worked the ceramics influenced by the civilizations of the Ancient Egypt, Canaán and Mesopotamia. They created receptacles with beautiful forms that they covered of drawings that were narrating the life and customs of its epoch. The Greek esthetics there was inherited by the Antigua Rome and Byzantium, which spread it up to the Far East. It joined later the arts of the Islamic world, of which the Chinese ceramists learned the employment of the beautiful blue of cobalt.
From the north of Africa it penetrated the art of the ceramics in the Iberian Peninsula, giving cause for the creation of the Hispanic-Moorish, previous faience of the ceramic wall tile with metallic enamels, of Persian influence, and prepared for the first time in Europe in Majorca (Spain), introduced later with big success in Sicily and in the whole Italy, where it lost the Islamic influence and europeizó.
Its initial use was, fundamentally, the receptacles making used to contain food or drinks. Further on it was used to shape statuettes of possible symbolic, magic, religious or funeral character. Also it was used like building material in the shape of brick, tile, tile or tile, shaping walls or covering ornaments. The skill of the glazed earthenware provided big attraction to him, was used also in sculpture. At present also it is used like electrical and thermal insulator in stoves, engines and in shielding.
Ancient switch of light, which was done of ceramics for being a good electrical insulator.
The winch and the stove are the fundamental and important elements for the manufacture of the ceramics. Brushes and rods are needed also for the decoration. The main hardware or tools are:
Wooden toothpicks to shape
Metal hardware to sculpt
Half moons of metal or metal choppers
Winches for ceramists
It pesters with several tops
Cutters with forms
Brushes top of gum
Banks of decoration of advanced ceramics
Skills and materials
The different skills that have been used have given like turned out a big variety of finished:
The raw material is the clay. There is used water, silica, lead, tin and metallic oxides. For the ceramics called potter’s clay not calcareous clay and salt is used. Another important material for another type of ceramics is the kaolin mixed with quartz and feldspar. Also there is used the dust of alabaster and marble. For the porcelains there are used the oxides of potassium, magnesium and aluminum.
So much earlier as after being cooked, the pottery piece can be adorned submitting it to different decoration skills:
Printed (cardial ceramics and culture of the corded ceramics).
Jerky, like the esgrafiado
To polish, identified with some skills as the Faience it give
The manufacture of ceramic components takes place of the following way:
The raw material is the clay. There is used water, silica, lead, tin and metallic oxides (depending on the type of ceramics).
They proceed to be ground up to obtaining the thinnest dust and/or are mixed in the most suitable proportion.
The dust gets in the mold that will shape the piece.
He surrenders to the static press (call like that because it acts in all the directions) to very high pressures, up to 3.000 kilos per square centimeter.
It is baked to a temperature of between 1.600 and 2.000 degrees centigrade. The process of pressed and cooking is named sinterización.
Nevertheless the pieces do not go out absolutely perfect of the press and them a later calibration adjustment is imposed on someone. The enormous hardness of the material turns now into a disadvantage, since it is possible only to use the diamond in its carved one. Even with this type of hardware the remechanization turns out to be slow and laborious and wear quickly the utillaje out, what gets dearer significantly the costs. As alternative is investigating new methods of treatment of the ceramic surfaces based on ultrasounds.
The last phase of the production process is the quality control.
The materials are good insulators and that also have the property of having a temperature of merger and resistance in compression raised. Likewise, its Young’s module (earring up to the flexible limit that forms in a haulage essay) also is very high (what we call a fragility).
All these properties, they do that the materials are impossible to melt and to mechanize for traditional means (milling, turned, brocaded, etc). For this reason, in the ceramics we realize a sinterización treatment. This process, for the nature in which it is created, produces pores that can be visible to simple sight. An essay to haulage, for the pores and Young’s high module (high fragility) and on having had a linkage iónico covalente, is impossible to realize.
Materials exist whose mechanical tension in a compression essay can become superior to the tension supported by the steel. The reason, it is given by the compression of the pores / holes that have been created in the material. On having compressed these pores, the force for section unit is major than before the collapse of the pores.
The properties of a ceramic material depend on the nature of the used clay, of the temperature and of the skills of cooking to which it has been submitted. This way we have:
Porous materials. They have not suffered vitrificación, that is to say, it does not go so far as to melt the quartz with the sand. Its break (on having broken,) is earthy, being completely permeable to the gases, liquids and fats. The most important:
- Cooked clays. Of reddish color due to the oxide of iron of the clays that compose it. The cooking temperature is of between 700 to 1.000 °C. If once cooked it is covered with tin oxide (similar to white enamel), it is named a faience estannífera. They are made: tiles, bricks, tiles, vases, casseroles, etc.
- Italian faience. – It is made by clay between yellowish and reddish mixed with sand, being able to be covering with transparent varnish. The temperature of different cooking between 1.050 to 1.070 °C.
- English faience. Made of sandy clay of which the iron oxide is eliminated by means of wash and it is added to him sílex (25-35 %), plaster, feldspar (lowering the melting point of the miscellany) and kaolin to improve the whiteness of the pasta. The cooking is realized in two phases:
1) Stew between 1.200 and 1.300 °C.
2) It is extracted from the stove and is covered of enamel. The result is similar to the porcelains, but it is not impermeable.
- Refractory. It is a question of porous cooked clays in whose interior there are a few big proportions of oxide of aluminum, thorium, beryllium and zirconium. The cooking is carried out between the 1.300 and 1.600 °C. The cooling must be realized slow and progressively to produce neither crackings nor internal tensions. There are obtained products that can resist temperatures of up to 3.000 °C. The most usual applications are:
a) Refractory bricks, which must support high temperatures inside stoves.
b) Electrocerámicas: With which at present investigations are carried out in engines of motorcars, planes, electrical generators, etc., with a view to replacing metallic elements for refractory, with that major temperatures and better yield can be obtained. Not very distant application was its use on the part of the NASA to protect the front and side street of the Challenger in the landing.
Impermeable and semiimpermeable materials. One has submitted them to quite high temperatures in which vitrifica completely the quartz sand. This way impermeable and harder products are obtained.
The most out-standing:
- Common ceramic potter’s clay. – It is obtained from ordinary clays submitted to temperatures of approximately 1.300 °C. It is much used in pavings.
- Thin ceramic potter’s clay. – Obtained from fireclays (containing metallic oxides) to those that a flux (feldspar) adds to him in order to reduce the melting point. Later they get in a stove approximately 1.300 °C. When this one on the verge of finishing the cooking, the objects of marine salt are impregnated. The salt reacts with the clay and there forms a thin layer of alkaline silicoalunminato vitrificado who awards to the potter’s clay its typical glazed earthenware.
- porcelain. It is obtained from a very pure clay, named kaolin, to which there is added to him melting (feldspar) and a desengrasante (quartz or sílex). There are very hard elements usually having a small thickness (from 2 to 4 mm), its natural color is white or show. So that the product is considered to be a porcelain it is necessary that he suffers two cooking: one to a temperature of between 1.000 and 1.300 °C and other one to higher temperature being able to come to 1.800 °C. Having multitude of applications in the hearth (batteries of kitchen, porcelains, etc.) and in the industry (nozzles of reactors, insulators in transformers, etc.). According to the temperature two types differ:
Soft porcelains. Cooked to approximately 1.000 °C, they are extracted, enamel is applied to them and they turn to introduce in the stove to a temperature of 1.250 °C or more.
Hard porcelains. 1.000 are cooked ºC, next they are extracted, are enameled, and re-get in the stove approximately 1.400 °C or more. If they are decorated this operation is realized and then they turn to introduce in the stove approximately 800 ºC.
Spanish ceramics foci
Ceramics of Alcora
Ceramics of Fajalauza
Ceramics of Manises
Ceramics of Paternal
Ceramics of Sargadelos
Ceramics of Toledo
Ceramics of Talavera
Ceramics of Teruel
Other local ceramics foci in the world
Talavera of Puebla
Ceramics of Bush Ortiz
Ceramics of Delft
Royal Crown Derby
Ceramics of Meissen
Ceramics of the Antigua Greece
and the Ceramics of Middle America.